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I was wondering if there was a word for such a situation, in which different readings for the same word assume different meanings also.

Since the term 同音異義 exists for homophones, I was wondering if it was the case for this phenomenon too.

Also, what would the term be for words that have multiple readings, but with the same meaning this time?

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    "Also, what would the term be for words that have multiple readings, but with the same meaning this time?" The only example I can come up with is 山道, which can be read やまみち or さんどう, but they present different nuances depending on what reading you pick, they aren't pure synonyms. However, there's also this related post discussing exactly this point.
    – jarmanso7
    Nov 23, 2023 at 19:50

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From a relevant article in the Japanese version of Wikipedia,

同形異義語または同綴異義語 (homograph) 発音を問わず「綴りが同じで意味が異なる単語群」だと一般に定義されている[注釈 2]。もし発音まで同じだった場合、それらは同形同音異義語にあたる。

Same-form-different-meaning (同形異義語) words, or also same-spelling-different-meaning words (同綴異義語), are generally defined as a group of words which regardless of their pronunciation, they have the same spelling but different meaning. In the case where they have even the same pronunciation, they would be same-spelling-same-sound-different-meaning words (同形同音異義語).

you can say either 同形異義語 or 同綴異義語 for homograph. And if the words share the pronunciation and the spelling, but only differ in meaning, then it would be 同形同音異義語.

Note that the quoted article discusses English homographs and homophones as well, even though it also has a dedicated section to Japanese homographs.

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