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I'd learned 行う as meaning "to carry out" a while back, and had understood it to mean something like carrying an action out, or performing an action. The definition offered in Jisho.org appears to corroborate this.

I recently learned 施行 as "carry out" too. The definition in Jisho.org appears to suggest it can be used in that meaning to denote the carrying out of plans, policies, rules, etc.

Can 行う also be used in the sense of carrying out a policy or a rule too? Can 施行する be used to mean carrying out anything other than policies or rules, like more general actions?

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Can 施行する be used to mean carrying out anything other than policies or rules, like more general actions?

Practically no. Searching on BCCWJ, most 施行する are used in the sense of putting (a law) into effect or carrying out (a policy). There are a few examples where it is used for medical treatment/therapy, as 放射線治療を施行する.

Can 行う also be used in the sense of carrying out a policy or a rule too?

For laws/rules, no. X法を行う does not sound idiomatic. For policies, I suppose it is mostly ok. E.g., 経済政策を行う=carry out economic measures. Note that 行う is very generic and it may be more common to use verbs like 実施する which is more restrictive in terms of verb collocations.

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