From chapter 25 of 新标准日本语中级, titled 創作中華料理コンテストの実現:


If どのメニュー takes the ga (nominative)-case, the meaning seems to be

Every menu is just a devised thing.

which is weird to me.

If どのメニュー takes the ni (locative)-case (i.e. =どのメニューにも), it gets more understandable to me as

On every menu there are all devised things.

Is this sentence in the latter case?

  • The menus are being devised, ie. created. I'm not sure what you mean by "on every menu there are devised things". That sounds strange.
    – A.Ellett
    Commented Oct 22, 2023 at 15:58
  • @A.Ellett I mean, "on every menu there are devised things(=dishes)" Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 3:42
  • 3
    It might help to understand that メニュー does not mean "menu", it means "menu item". Probably a better word to translate it with is "dish". Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 4:47

1 Answer 1


I think you are missing どの correlates with ばかり, which means every single....

メニュー does take the nominative, but if you drop どの, then it should also drop ばかり and will be something like

  • (この)メニューは工夫されたものです.

which means this menu is a devised thing or more understandably this menu has an element of invention in it. (Note there is not just).

The original sentence translates to Every single menu has an invention in it. Your sentence would render like どのメニューにも工夫があります, which basically means the same thing as the original.

  • Except that "Every single menu..." is a mistranslation, unless you think that "menu" can mean "an item on a menu". Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 10:30
  • @BrianChandler Yeah, I suppose it should be a dish as you commented to the OP. BTW to the English native speakers, menu is a list of foods? I think on the continent it often defaults to a (predefined) set of dishes (like Japanese 定食).
    – sundowner
    Commented Oct 23, 2023 at 10:58

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