So for this sentence:


The given translation is:

'Judges are guaranteed a decent salary so that they won't be swayed (influenced) by bribes and the like.'

I'm confused about the よう in the middle after さゆうしない. My first instinct is to read this as "way"/"kind of", as in "not influenced by bribes kind of... salary". But, if it's read that way then there's not really a nuance of reasoning right? The translation would be more like, "Judges are guaranteed a good, not likely to be influenced by bribes kind of salary."?

  • Is it really 左右しないよう, not 左右されないよう? 左右する is almost always a transitive verb in modern Japanese. I'm not sure if it's just a typo you made or if you came across a rare intransitive usage.
    – naruto
    Oct 16, 2023 at 2:03

2 Answers 2


よう here is a variation of ように, which express a purpose.

  • Do you have a source that explains that the に can be dropped? I've looked at couple of sources and neither indicate that it might be omitted. Oct 13, 2023 at 19:32
  • 2
    @Valevalorin This entry says "45は「よう」という形でも用いられる", so ように to indicate a purpose, goal, hope or command can become よう. So you cannot say 鳥のよう飛ぶ instead of 鳥のように飛ぶ, but you can drop に in 読めるよう(に)書く, 無事に帰ってくるよう(に)祈る, 10分以内に終えるよう(に), etc. The よう version sounds a little literary or stiffer to me.
    – naruto
    Oct 16, 2023 at 1:51

If this had been 左右されないよう, as the translation suggests, it would clearly be a quoted indirect command 左右されないようにと from which に and と have been dropped, the direct form of the quoted command being 左右されるなよと.

ように means 'in (such) a way that', and と, as is frequently the case, is the quotative と, with a following verb of saying or requesting omitted (言って, 頼んて).

As it stands, there could of course be an unexpressed subject of 左右する clear from context. Perhaps 汚い政治家 or some such? But it would seem to be a bit awkward.

I think more context would be useful.

  • I'm familiar with ように being used for "in order to", but given that the に was absent I didn't consider that grammar point. However, like I commented on the other answer, I can't find any sources that state that the に can be omitted in this situation. As for context, this is just a practice exercise the only additional context is that this is hypothetically written in a textbook. Oct 13, 2023 at 20:57
  • 1
    I'm afraid the only reference I can give you is Samuel Martin, A reference Grammar if Japanese. This is the definitive reference, but if you are looking for something on the internet, this page seems to cover the subject: link
    – N. Hunt
    Oct 13, 2023 at 21:15
  • 1
    That is supposed to be a link to a web page...
    – N. Hunt
    Oct 13, 2023 at 21:16
  • I appreciate the effort/additional info. Oct 16, 2023 at 14:30
  • You are most welcome.
    – N. Hunt
    Oct 19, 2023 at 5:25

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