Recently I asked a question on HiNative and said "試験を受けました" but a native Japanese speaker corrected it to "試験を受験しました".
I'm positive I've seen someone say 試験を受ける before, so why did that native correct my sentence?
試験を受験する is a bit more formal than 試験を受ける, and more suitable for something like a university entrance examination. It implies an examination that is backed up by a formal institution, one with a big consequence, etc. You will probably need to specifically apply to be able to take it. It is less suitable for a routinely done test, something closer to a quiz at the end of a lesson.
Still, something like 大学入試を受ける is fine, too. The person who corrected it might have wanted to teach the word 受験する, nothing more.