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Some い-adjectives are derived somehow from verbs. For instance, 忙しい is related to 急ぐ according to Wiktionary.

Are there many い-adjectives derived from verbs? If a given verb has an adjectival form, can you reliably predict the pronunciation? Is there a list of adjectives that come from verbs?

(I assume that this derivational process is no longer productive and that most verbs don't have adjectival forms like this. Is that right?)

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Are there many い-adjectives derived from verbs?

There are quite a few. For example...

[勇]{いさ}む → 勇ましい
[痛]{いた}む → 痛ましい
[苛立]{いらだ}つ → 苛立たしい
[疑]{うたが}う → 疑わしい
[疎]{うと}む → 疎ましい
[恨]{うら}む → 恨めしい
[羨]{うらや}む → 羨ましい
[恐]{おそ}る → 恐ろしい
[好]{この}む → 好ましい
[騒]{さわ}ぐ → 騒がしい
[荒]{すさ}む → [凄]{すさ}まじい
[悩]{なや}む → 悩ましい
[妬]{ねた}む → 妬ましい
[似付]{につ}く → 似付かわしい
[望]{のぞ}む → 望ましい
[喜]{よろこ}ぶ → 喜ばしい
[煩]{わずら}う → 煩わしい
This is not an exhaustive list. There are also [慎]{つつ}ましい、[思]{おも}わしい、[呪]{のろ}わしい、ふさわしい、[輝]{かがや}かしい、[懐]{なつ}かしい、[行]{ゆ}く→ゆかしい(cf奥ゆかしい) etc...

If a given verb has an adjectival form, can you reliably predict the pronunciation?

Most follow the -u → -ashii pattern, (e.g. isogu → isogashii) but there are also -u → -oshii (e.g. osoru → osoroshii), -u → -eshii (e.g. uramu → urameshii) and even -u → -ajii (e.g. susamu → susamajii), -u → -awashii (e.g. nitsuku → nitsukawashii) so I'm not sure.

Is there a list of adjectives that come from verbs?

I searched on the Internet but I couldn't find a list.

(I assume that this derivational process is no longer productive and that most verbs don't have adjectival forms like this. Is that right?)

I think you're right (but I'm not an expert so excuse me if I'm wrong).

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  • あと、(仲)睦まじい、願わしい、狂おしい、頼もしい、誇らしい、微笑ましい、腹立たしい、嘆かわしい、涙ぐましい、目覚ましい、とかもそれっぽいですけどどうなんでしょう。 ちなみに「優しい」が「痩す」(→痩せる)の形容詞化って辞書に書いてあって驚きでした
    – chocolate
    Sep 3, 2023 at 16:20

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