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幽霊事件はその特異性上どうしても捜査が後手に回ってしまう

My understanding of the sentence is that she's saying that due to the 特異性 nature of the case in the end the investigation falls behind/stalls 後手に回ってしまう.

However I'm curios on how 上 by itself is acting here. I would assume it's either 上に or 上で, however the particle is entirely omitted so I'm not sure.

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When used as a suffix, it is read 上{じょう} an it turns the preceding word into a のadjective or an adverb. Just as Xの上{うえ}で, it means "in terms of X"(see this for reference).

For example:

歴史 History -> 歴史上 "In terms of history", i.e. "Historical, Historic"

形式 Form, format, style -> 形式上 "In terms of format", i.e "Ceremonial"

特異性 singularity, peculiarity -> 特異性 "In terms of peculiarity".

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    This is mostly correct, but note that this construction is not really limited to meaning "in terms of" - it can also just mean "due to" when it relates to the reasons for something, as in the OP's question. Your linked reference actually gives quite a few examples like this.
    – Mindful
    Aug 19, 2023 at 3:12

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