I am studying a reading book for JLPT3 and I came across a grammar I can't seem to find:


Can someone explain the use of the verb おる here?


2 Answers 2


This is an irregular 中止法 usage of いる you have to remember. Although the masu-stem of いる is い, you cannot say this:

❌ このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われて、お年寄りも気軽にいろいろな場所へ行くことができる。

Instead, you must say this:

✅ このような都市はコンパクトシティと言われており、お年寄りも気軽にいろいろな場所へ行くことができる。

This type of ており used in the middle of a sentence has no honorific or humble meaning. For more details, see my answer here.

Longer ichidan verbs (e.g. 老いる) do not have this irregularity, so you can safely say something like "私は老い、いずれ死ぬだろう".

  • Thank you so much! Sorry you had to repeat the explanation. Aug 16, 2023 at 14:16


That's one of the multiple "keigo" things (i.e. "being polite, pushing yourself down" hierarchy etc.)

I guess おる is most commonly (just if hypothetically counting) used to start emails in "...いつもお世話になっております" (instead of just "お世話になっています")

A bit like, when ending the mails. よろしくお願いします vs 宜しくお願い致します

  • You're saying the sentence is written keigo?
    – Leebo
    Aug 11, 2023 at 21:56
  • 1
    ^ 主語が自分じゃないので謙譲語(humble form)でもないし、文末が「できます。」じゃなくて「できる。」だから丁寧語(polite form)でもなさそうですよね。この回答にあるように、formal form なのでは
    – chocolate
    Aug 12, 2023 at 3:41

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