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comment Function of the first の in とかの他の
The reason is that の is very useful and there are a number of ways it can be used to connect things, making it very easy to overuse. I must admit I'm very guilty of constructing sentences with too many の myself, especially when I hastily write/say something just to make a point. And on the web, many people are just trying to communicate, not trying to write beautiful Japanese sentences. They do convey meaning perfectly; it just sound awkward in formal writings. The Japanese aren't good at saying (English) "No" explicitly in negotiations, but they do use の a lot in their language.
comment Expressing ethnicity that is different from nationality
The word 在日 is used for people of either Korean or Chinese decent in Japan, especially the former. While the word itself just means "staying in Japan," so 在日アメリカ人 for Americans living in Japan should make sense, such usage is rare and even awkward (to my ears). The word 在日 is frequently used by the jingoistic Japanese to refer to the said groups of people in quite derogatory manner, so depending on the occasion you may need to be aware of the subtleties the word could bring to in your conversations. For the original question, イギリス系カナダ人 would be the most natural way; no need for の there.
comment How to use に with “masu-stem (連用形 stem) + に + Verb” structure
@Tim Yeah, I see what you mean. My thought was that 行き違い in my example was used like noun + "ni" where the noun describes the state of how the thing was done. I'm very sorry that the lack of formal linguistic background prevents me from articulating in terms of common terms (now I understand why native English speakers cannot explain English grammar to me, haha), but the last example could also be written like 行き違うように手紙を送った. Now, the native in me tells that this sentence is a bit awkward unless making the letter cross was intentionally done.
comment How to use に with “masu-stem (連用形 stem) + に + Verb” structure
An interesting point, but I don't feel anything wrong with how these sentences sound. (That of course doesn't exclude the possibility that I'm using incorrect grammar, but, hey, I grew up with it!) The reason why you feel uncomfortable with my examples is that you are interpreting "~ni" as a sort of adjectives to describe the nouns right after (in which case "~na" would be more natural sounding), whereas it is more appropriate here to interpret them as adverbs to describe the verbs which end these sentence. Maybe my quick English translations were too careless to illuminate the difference.