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11

There are obviously no official "rules" regarding the matter as it is something that each family should decide on. In the vast majority of families, howeber, one would not be taught to address one's younger uncle or aunt as 「叔父{おじ}さん」 or 「叔母{おば}さん」, respectively. That would be almost unthinkable. How one would be taught to address them by one's parents ...


8

Female speakers would certainly use 「素敵{すてき}」 more often than male speakers would, but it is not a female-only word by any means. I, an adult male last time I checked, use the word occasionally to describe persons and objects. I used to use it much more frequently when I was in the fashion retail industry where the vast majority of my customers were ...


7

Those two words do not assume the same roles. 少{すこ}し is an adverb and 少{すく}ない is an i-adjective. So basically, 少し will modify a verb whereas 少ない will tell that there is not much of something. Some examples. 友達{ともだち}が少ない。I don't have a lot of friends. 時間{じかん}が少なくなった。There is not much time left. (lit. Time has become rarer.) ...


6

The predicative form of 有名 is 有名だ and its attributive or adjectival form is 有名な. The の particle nominalizes (changes) the preceding adjective into a noun. So 最も有名なのがウーロン茶で is saying that the most famous thing is oolong tea.


6

「で」is the Kansai equivalent of 「よ」, so it's 「見なおした」+「で」 見なおしたで~ is the same as 見なおしたよ  (the で sound is often extended in speech, that's why there's an え on the end. Same as using「~」)


5

There are so many ways to render it with a similar effect. Idiolect could play a significant role, reflecting one's generation, gender, personality, proclivity to use humor, etc. The addressee's reaction could depend on HOW you say it, too, e.g., with affected seriousness, with subtle cuteness, a deadpan tone/face, furrowed brows with eyes smiling, etc. ...


5

You can say 「10点満点{てんまんてん}で」. More "formally", you can say 「10段階評価{だんかいひょうか}で」. Both are very common.


5

I think ございます is a 丁寧語(polite form) of ある. Sources: Wiki敬語・三省堂辞書 ~がある / ~があります -> ~がございます ~である / ~です -> ~でございます Examples: 「お忘れ物のございませんようご注意ください。」 「ご不明な点・ご質問等がございましたら、こちらまでお問い合わせください。」 I live in Kansai and I don't think ございます is used more frequently here than in the east (I'm not sure if it's used less, though).


4

They're mostly interchangeable. If you want to be nit-picky, 交替 is for regularly occurring changes, and 交代 is for one-time changes, but this is not a hard-set rule.


4

I think many people will feel uneasy if they are addressed as 叔母さん/叔父さん by someone older than them, even when they're 叔母/叔父 by definition. This is true especially when your 叔父/叔母 is relatively young. There is no single safe answer for this, but practically, you can just ask your aunt/uncle how to address them, saying something like ...


4

Yes, ~やつ is antiquated and one would only use it in a joking manner. E.g. こやつが犯人です as a caption for a funny cat pic.


4

Basically, yes. To be a bit more strict about "formal", I'd rather say it "objective" (vs "subjective"). That is, we hardly even use のだ when we have informal speech. Another point to notice is about であるのだ. The permissive range would be quite narrow if you're going to end a sentence with it. Because, the overall mood of a sentence is decided by the ...


4

The reading for 話 as a counter, according to jisho.org, is わ. The first kanji is read だい, and is a prefix for ordinal numbers. So the whole thing is read だいろくわ and means "sixth episode".


4

「ごく」 in 「ごくかすか」 is an adverb meaning "extremely". In kanji, it is written as 「極{ごく}」. This curry is named 「男{おとこ}の極旨黒{ごくうまくろ}カレー」, literally, "Extremely Tasty Black Curry for Men".


4

Technically speaking, it's not a Standard Japanese. But おる is a normal verb in many dialects in western Japan, and the speakers in those regions won't consider おられる really unnatural. Recently, it has infiltrated into the east as well.


4

That なにも is a Guiding Adverb that leads partial negation. It means nothing by itself but functions as a sign that tells that partial negation is following. It's different from normal なに+も ((not) anything) in the point of pitch accent. [なにも{HLL} vs なに{LH}+も{H}] e.g. 何も、急がなくてもいいじゃないか You don't need to hurry, do you? Other examples of Guiding Adverbs are ...


3

いくつ in general means "how many"; this can also be applied to years to ask "how old" ("how many years") as you've pointed out. か can be add to counter question words to mean "several ~". ラーメン屋に学生が何人かいます。 → There are several (people) students in the ramen restaurant. 先週のお祭りに何個かのたこ焼きを食った。 → I ate several takoyaki (balls) at the festival last week. ...


3

いくつ can also be used as an interrogative for indefinite number, that is, how many. To use indefinite expressions in non-question, か is combined with it. いくつか - some number いくつかの種類 - some number of kinds いつか - at some point (Of time) いつか彼には知らせるつもりだった。- I was going to tell him at some point. なぜか - for some reason 彼女はなぜかこの頃私を避けてる。 - She is avoiding ...


3

The most common term would be 「スラットウォール棚{だな}」. 「スラットウォール什器{じゅうき}」 is also used, but it is not as common. This is what you get if you image-search 「スラットウォール棚」. http://image.search.yahoo.co.jp/search?ei=UTF-8&fr=&p=%E2%80%9D%E3%82%B9%E3%83%A9%E3%83%83%E3%83%88%E3%82%A6%E3%82%A9%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB%E6%A3%9A%E2%80%9D


3

Both ひとまえ and にんまえ exist. 人前【ひとまえ】:(noun) public place; front of the audience. 人前【にんまえ】: (counter) portion of, often for meal. 1 serving = 1人前【にんまえ】. 人前【じんぜん】(式【しき】) : (noun) A certain irreligious style of wedding, as opposed to Christian-, Shinto-, or Buddhism-style weddings.


3

えぐり is the 連用形 (continuative form) of えぐる, which means "to hollow out", "to gouge" えぐり + 込む is a 複合動詞 (compound verb). The second verb (後項動詞) in a compound usually loses its original meaning. A small list of such verbs can be found in this fluentu article. 込む alone can be translated as "to be crowded", whereas this meaning is lost here and it's more ...


2

You can also use [自愛]{じ・あい}. ご自愛ください → Please take care of yourself ご自愛を祈ります → (Same) "I'll pray that you..." Using 祈る with a superiour in your company might be a little too familiar, so ください is probably the better choice here. Refer also to this question and this one.


2

気{き}を付{つ}けてください means "please pay attention", or "please take care of yourself", so feel free to use it. And when it comes to your superior, you can add お before 気, and say "お気をつけてください" to show respect. As for "feel better soon" or "get well soon", you can say "お大事に(おだいじに)". I think there is no problem to say it to you superior. And please pay ...


2

I know いくつ means how old Without context, 「いくつ」 means "how many" far more often than it means "how old". 「いくつか」 means "some", "a few", "several", etc.


2

It has nothing to do with a dialect. 「よっとな」 is just one of the many versions of the shouts (chants?) people use as they make a physical movement of some sort such as lifting up an object, pushing or pulling an object, handing or tossing an object to another person, etc. Similar versions include: あらよっと、そらよっと、こらよっと、はいよっと、よっこらせ, etc. All of these mean "Here ...


2

To simplify a little, 「どいとれっ」 in Western Japan = 「どいてろっ」 in Eastern Japan = 「どいていろ」 in the dictionary form 「退{ど}く」 means "to move out of the way", "to step aside", "to get out", etc. 「どいとれっ」, therefore, means "Step aside (and stay there)!" because it contains 「いる/いろ」 in it. 1) Is there any meaning for the word 「けっ」at the beginning of the sentence? ...


2

おけ is the imperative form for おく. You can ignore the っ at the end as it carries no meaning, only to show an abrupt end of the sentence. The second sentence mean: Oh, hold (his/her) arms and legs tightly !


2

When いや is used in the sense of being a casual way to say 'no', yes, it is mostly only used by men. And as Hideki says, 嫌だ meaning disgust or dislike is the other meaning. The reason I'm submitting a separate answer that says the same as his is because of potential difference in dialect. I've been living in Tokyo for several years and I hear women(usually ...


2

There are two kinds of いや. One is the one you mentioned. It basically means 'no'. The other is a short form of 嫌{いや}だ. This word expresses a feeling of disgust / dislike. Actually young female speakers use the short form a lot. Male speakers say いやだ and seldom use the short form.


2

Yes, なりゃ/なりゃあ is a colloquial contracted form of なれば and なりは: 大人になりゃ理解できる。 どうもなりはしない。 → どうもなりゃしない。 (in case you're not familiar with this pattern, see this) れば or りは can be contracted into りゃ: お金がありゃ、車が買える。(←あれば) お金がなけりゃ、車は買えない。(←なければ) お金なんてありゃしない。(←ありは) やりゃあできる。(←やれば)



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