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11

Not being much of an immigration-based country, many Japanese people are often not consciously aware of the distinction between, for instance, "Chinese-Malaysian" and "Chinese living in Malaysia". The "proper" ways to express those are: 「中国系{ちゅうごくけい}マレーシア人{じん}」 = "a Chinese-Malaysian" 「マレーシア在住{ざいじゅう}の中国人」 = "a Chinese (citizen) living in Malaysia". The ...


10

When I hear: 「面白いマンガ」 「面白い冗談・ジョーク」 「面白いことを言う」 「面白い芸人」「面白い顔」「面白い服装」 I would normally think the 面白い is used as "funny", "comical", "makes you laugh", or maybe "queer", etc. When I hear: 「このゲーム/本/映画、面白かったよ。」 「(テレビで)今日、何か面白い番組やってる?」 「ディズニーランドとユニバーサルスタジオジャパンのどっちが面白い?」 「俺と勝負しろ!」--「面白い。相手になってやろう。」 「ドイツ語の勉強は面白いです。」「大学の勉強、面白い?」 ...


9

For your purpose, the most often-used word would be 「話{わ}」 followed probably by 「回{かい}」, but not 「挿話{そうわ}」. 「挿話」 is more like an "anecdote" or a little "side-story". Ordinally, we say 「第{だい}(number)話{わ}」 or 「第{だい}(number)回{かい}」 . Cardinally, we say 「(number)話」,「(number)話分{わぶん}」,「(number)回分{かいぶん}」, etc. "I watched 13 episodes so far." = ...


9

You can use 期【き】, シリーズ, 部【ぶ】, or シーズン, all of which are common. Here are the examples taken from Wikipedia (I haven't confirmed, but presumably these reflect the official namings): けいおん! 第2期 3年B組金八先生 第7シリーズ(2004年 - 2005年) Xファイル 第5シーズン (or シーズン5) 水戸黄門 第38部 (2008年) These are basically interchangeable, but here's my impression: 期: very ...


8

I would say that the most versatile counterpart would be 「相性{あいしょう}」. It can be used in any kind of interpersonal relationships including romantic ones. We say: 「(Person A) + と + (Peson B) + は + 相性がいい。」 or 「(Person A) + と + (Peson B) + は + 相性が悪{わる}い。」 Every once in a while, you will encounter the word 「ケミストリー」, but it is not very common at all.


7

Here's a question: are you sure that your characterisation of the situation is accurate? Are all, or the majority, of new words in Japanese created by importation from other languages? Do you have any statistics about this? It's often relatively obvious to English speakers when we see a katakana word imported from English, but how do you know you're not ...


7

真綿感 itself is not an idiomatic phrase, but this 真綿感 is a weak reference to the well-known idiom 真綿で首を絞める, meaning "something unpleasant is happening very slowly", "to torture slowly by an indirect means", etc. And this 真綿 (floss silk) represents something 'indirect', 'vague', or 'fuzzy'. In the linked example, the author was disappointed by the quality of ...


7

Not exactly (as several have commented). This is how you talk about fractions in Japanese: 7分の1 → 1/7 Literally, you can think about it as 'one part of seven'. It is not a ratio, i.e. 'one part to seven parts', as that equates to 1/8.


6

「とくと」 means 「よく」= "carefully", "thoroughly", etc. It should be found in any small monolingual dictionaries. The word is not really archaic; It is just not used often in informal conversation. It is used quite often in dramatic- or theatrical-sounding imperative or request asking one to do something thoroughly just like in your example. In other words, ...


6

The general construction is ~返{かえ}す. Let me list an example: to bite back = 噛{かみ}付{つ}き返{かえ}す Remember, however, this construction has a negative connotation. In the case of "to kiss someone back" I would say キスのお返しをする.


6

I think ください in お待ちください is an auxiliary verb, and thus should be written in kana according to the "proper rule". Few people strictly obey this, as you know. 待っ and 待ち are both 連用形 (te-form) of 待つ, and 待っ is 促音便 of 待ち. I've never seen such an argument that one should use kana in 待ってください but kanji in お待ち下さい, or kana in 来てください but kanji in お越し下さい.


5

I would say 予{よ}約{やく}をお願{ねが}いしたいのですが for "I'd like to make an appointment. (when for example calling up a doctor's practice)" and 外{がい}国{こく}の運{うん}転{てん}免{めん}許{きょ}を日{に}本{ほん}のものに切{き}り替{か}えたいのですが、予{よ}約{やく}をお願{ねが}いします for "I'd like to make an appointment to change my foreign driver's license into a Japanese one. (when calling up the prefectural ...


5

In general, 予約 is the word you would want to use in this situation. It can be an appointment or a reservation. Regarding the other words you listed, 待ち合わせ is usually used to refer to waiting for someone at a particular place and time, like meeting your friend at the subway station's north exit at 2pm. That would be your 待ち合わせ場所 and 待ち合わせ時間. This also ...


5

Basically, you have been looking in all the wrong places. If it had anything to do with Chinese, how would you explain the 「じめない」? 「心慣じめない」 should be the author's own way of writing 「心{こころ}馴染{なじ}めない」 for whatever his/her aesthetic purpose might be. 「馴染む」 is more standard 「馴染まない」 is only the negative form of it. Try looking up 「馴染む」, preferrably in a ...


4

First of all, 「おつかれさまでしたどぞ」 is not a common phrase at all. From your description, however, I am pretty sure what was going on. The Japanese counterpart of "Over" used in wireless communications to mean "a message is complete" is 「どうぞ」 and it is often pronounced like 「どぞ」 to shorten it. Thus, I would think that the boss was kidding by speaking like he ...


4

Most commonly, we would say: 「(Person)の肩{かた}に腕{うで}をかける」 or 「(Person)の肩に腕を回{まわ}す」 I actually could not think of another phrase.


4

Technically speaking, it's not a Standard Japanese. But おる is a normal verb in many dialects in western Japan, and the speakers in those regions won't consider おられる really unnatural. Recently, it has infiltrated into the east as well.


4

「ごく」 in 「ごくかすか」 is an adverb meaning "extremely". In kanji, it is written as 「極{ごく}」. This curry is named 「男{おとこ}の極旨黒{ごくうまくろ}カレー」, literally, "Extremely Tasty Black Curry for Men".


3

In addition to @l'électeur's answer, we also commonly say 肩【かた】を組【く】む when two or more people put their arms on one another's shoulders.


3

If I were you, I would say 'Xを食べるよう進化した' ( X wo taberu you shinka shita ).


3

There are many ways to say "at this rate" in Japanese but the more common ones are: 「この調子{ちょうし}だと/なら」、「このペースだと/なら」、「このままいけば」, etc. Any one of these would fit your sentence with no problem. Regarding 「この分{ぶん}」, you could use it by adding 「なら」 or 「だと」 to it, but not 「に」 as you formed it. You cannot say 「この分に続いたら」, though it was a nice try. You can say ...


3

Yes, 「7分の1」 means same as 1:7 mathematically. 1:7 = (1/8):(7/8) = (1/8)/(7/8) = (1/8)x(8/7) = 8/56 = 1/7 However, in Japan, kids are taught that 1:7 is 「[比]{ひ}」 and 1/7 is 「[分数]{ぶんすう}」. I guess that 「比」 is translated as "ratios", and 「分数」 is translated as "fractions" generally. So, Japanese people tend to think that 1/7 is not a ratio, maybe. In ...


3

「なんざ」=「なんぞ + は」, originally. 「~~なんぞは」⇒「~~なんざあ」⇒「~~なんざ」 The last two are heard almost exclusively around Kanto. Meaning: Same as 「なんかは」 or 「などは」. ("Stuff like ~~", "~~ and such", etc. )


3

Provided you mean 2.2 of this -> http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/identify by "to identify with", I would say 主人公に共{きょう}感{かん}できる? or  主人公に感{かん}情{じょう}移{い}入{にゅう}できる? Caveat: the above are not verbatim translations.


3

If you need to explicitly include everything — "to home", "to return/go back" and "to drive" — you have to say "運転して家に帰る途中". But 家に is usually obvious, and can be omitted. ニコニコする in this context sounds a bit funny to me. The common and handy word for this is 思い出し笑い, and the most common mimesis of 思い出し笑い is ニヤニヤ, not ニコニコ. ニヤニヤ is used both when ...


3

The difference is minimal. They can be used interchangeably most of the time. The actual conceptual difference between 月曜 and 月曜日 is not so hard to understand, either. First you have to know that what 曜 exactly refers to is "planet" in astrology. Thus, 月曜 means "planet of Moon" and 月曜日 is "day of planet of Moon". So it's like we're actually calling it ...


3

「やりい」 is a light or friendly imperative form of the Standard 「やれ(よ)/やりなさい(よ)/やりな(よ)」 used in parts of Western Japan. 「早{はや}く言{い}いなさい」⇒「はよ言い」 「食{た}べなさい」⇒「食べえ」 「よく見{み}なさい」⇒「よう見い」


3

いくつ can also be used as an interrogative for indefinite number, that is, how many. To use indefinite expressions in non-question, か is combined with it. いくつか - some number いくつかの種類 - some number of kinds いつか - at some point (Of time) いつか彼には知らせるつもりだった。- I was going to tell him at some point. なぜか - for some reason 彼女はなぜかこの頃私を避けてる。 - She is avoiding ...



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