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13

語 is the suffix which means 'language'. Unlike English which needs two different nouns for a country and its language, in Japanese, you can simply add 語 after the name of a country to mean the language spoken in that country. (e.g. ドイツ = Germany, ドイツ語 = German, フランス = France, フランス語 = French) 日本 is one word made of two characters, meaning 'Japan'. ...


7

It's [女帝]{じょてい}. 皇帝 is also used for an empress, e.g.: アンナ(ロシア皇帝)


7

There are some fixed expressions such as: ご愁傷さまです お悔やみ申し上げます Both are formal, and can be used regardless of the relationship; you can say this to friends/colleagues/bosses. "ご愁傷さま" is sometimes used when nobody dies (e.g. ironically when somebody is disappointed) while "お悔やみ申し上げます" is almost always limited to the context of condolences, but both are ...


5

You can add focus particles like は or も to verbs, but in order to do so, you have to split the verb into two parts so that the particle has some place to go. We'll split the verb into its the continuative stem (called 連用形 in Japanese) and the verb する. For example:   忘れる   → 忘れ+する   忘れる+も = 忘れもする Or:   忘れない   → 忘れ+しない   忘れない+は = 忘れはしない Your example ...


5

It is difficult to talk about the phrase 「ごめんなさいませ」 mostly because it is not in wide use (that is unless there actually exists an area that I am unaware of where it is often said). I have probably heard it 2-3 times in my life, but that means only once every 10 years or so. I feel like it has (almost) always been an adult woman who I have heard say it. ...


4

台 in this context is a short for パチンコ台, a Pachinko machine. やった is the past tense of やる, a verb "to play" in this context. Thus the topic of the sentense is "The Machine which Joe played". ガラス is a glass panel which is placed on the front of a machine. はずしてあった is the past ~てある form of a verb 外す, to remove. Thus the main sentence is "the front glass had been ...


4

~じゃない is not particularly feminine in Standard/Tokyo Japanese, as long as the ない is relatively short (i.e. sticks to the moraic rhythm) and maintains its low pitch. I would say that the longer ない is drawn out, and the more rising pitch it is given, the more feminine it sounds.


4

厚生, 福祉 and 福利 First of all, 福利 and 厚生 are almost outdated words except in legal terms or a combination of 福利厚生 ("fringe benefits" according to WP). 福祉 is the most common word covers "welfare" in every situation today. 福利 particularly refers to benefits or services one can gain from welfare system. And 厚生 literally means "fulfilled life" or "life ...


4

Yes, I've heard 奴 used to refer to females before. Of course, it is more frequently used to refer to males. But remember that the rules of grammar and convention are not so strict in casual, colloquial conversation (which is typically where 奴 is used to refer to anyone). Although I've never heard a female refer to herself as 奴 before, I've heard college-age ...


4

済ませる= ”I will let the matter pass” 済まさない= ”I will not let the matter pass” すまさんぞ (済まさんぞ)= ”I will NEVER let the matter pass”


4

か can follow である in subordinate clauses. For example, 真実であるかは不明。Whether it is true or not is unknown. (You can also say it as 真実かどうかは不明。) か can also follow だ in subordinate clauses, as @snailboat says. For example, なぜだかわからない。I don't know why.


4

Colloquial form vs. "dictionary" form: 「わらってた」=「わらっていた」 「ん」=「の」 「じゃ」=「では」 Put together, 「わらっていたのでは」 means "if you just kept laughing". 「では」, in this context, is like 「だと」 in meaning -- "if". 「なあ...わらってたんじゃわからねえよ。」 thus, means: "Y'know, I don't get the picture if you just keep laughing."


4

ふりかけてきてやった is composed of three verbs, ふりかける, くる and やる. 振りかける is an ordinary transitive verb meaning to sprinkle. くる and やる are called subsidiary verbs (補助動詞), which are already explained in detail here: What is a subsidiary verb? The subsidiary verb くる has several roles, some of which can be a bit tricky at first. From デジタル大辞泉: 9 ...


4

「[母]{はは}みたいでよかった。」 could mean "I am glad I look like my mother.", but without any context to explain that you are talking about the physical resemblance, it would usually just mean "I am glad I am like my mother." To express "I am glad I look like my mother." in a single sentence all by itself, you would say: 「[母親似]{ははおやに}でよかった。」 Kids would say ...


4

I only hope that I am thinking of the 「へい」 that you are talking about. The 「へい」 I am thinking of is the 「へい」 that is probably more often heard in dramas and period dramas than in real life which is used by male speakers (at least in Kanto) who are being humble to their superiors. It means the same as 「はい」. ...


4

This sentence is frank expression. I think only veteran seller tends to use it. In politely, 品数{しなかず}は少ないですが、種類{しゅるい}においてはその辺{あたり}りのデパート並{な}みです。 So 「おいちゃあ」menas「おいては」. And 「おいては」 is like 「ついては」. I think it can be translated "about" in english. There are few stuffs, but we can competitive with near department stores about a kind of stuffs. If ...


4

To answer without looking at or copying from anything, 「しかも~~~ときている」 means "On top of all that, it comes with ~~~." This is an exclamatory expression or at least one of surprise. It is difficult to translate 「ときている」 all by itself (and it is not often used by itself, either). There would have to be other "advantages" mentioned in the immediate ...


4

Peanut butter:「[粒入]{つぶい}り(の)」、「つぶつぶ(の)」, etc. Rotten milk:「ドロドロになる/なっている」、「ドロドロの」, etc. Chunky gel: same as rotten milk. If it is very hard, one could use 「ゴツゴツ」、「ゴロゴロ」, etc. I only trust you can change these forms freely according to the context.


3

If somebody calls other one ~~奴, I'll assume the referent is the speaker's close (often the same-sex) friend, or someone has frictions with him/her, or s/he is casually mentioning an unspecified person. There's no gender restrictions anyway. As an aside, 奴 can colloquially refer things whose names are unclear to the speaker or hearer, in this case it's even ...


3

恩 - favor or kindness from others that one should be feeling a sense of gratitude toward 義務 - duty rooted in social systems, usually associated with legal senses, such as liability or military service 義理 - duty rooted in personal relations usually friendship. family relations never or rarely come in this category. 人情 - pity or sympathy one feels when ...


3

日 Can also mean "Sun" 本 Can mean "Origin" 語 Can mean "language" If you look at the Japanese Flag ,you will notice there is a big red circle. That is a sun. The sun is a very important object in Japanese folklore. Another thing is that 日本語 refers to the Japanese language which we often just refer to as Japanese


3

You could use 逃げるんだね as a command, but I don't think you should use it. Here are the reasons. The phrase is commanding the listener to escape, but it also has an extra nuance that the speaker is not concerned about the result the listener's escape, or the speaker thinks the listener can't do it. It sounds ironic. 逃げるんだね also sounds like asking a question ...


2

しとられん means you can't do something or can't focus on something, because there is something more important. In this sentence, it says when ジョー comes, you can't do businesses anymore. Probably, ジョー is a person who interrupt the businesses. ~ ちゅうて means "(someone) says ~". ちゅうて comes right after the content of what they speak. In this context, 商人 said ...


2

You could omit 数;「[彼等]{かれら}は多い。」. It is grammatically correct, but it is ambiguous on what you are talking about, unless it is clear because of the context. In sentence 「[彼等]{かれら}の[数]{かず}は多い。」, it is somewhat clear you are talking about "number of people" (though still have a little room the sentence can be interpreted differently.) but the meaning of the ...


2

今日の所は良いでしょう。 is roughly equivalent to "That's it for today." The sentence is used by a teacher or a boss and that means the speaker has finished speaking, lesson or anything else he/she want, and the listener(s) can leave now.


2

文 refers to a sentence, regardless of whether it's written or spoken. I find no significant discrepancy in usage between Japanese '文' and English 'sentence' here. For example you can say something like 命令文のイントネーション (intonation of an imperative sentence), which unequivocally refers to a spoken sentence.


2

@user4092 is right: だ (助動詞 used like a filler) + は.   だ[助動] 2. from デジタル大辞泉 : 終止形「だ」を間投助詞的に用いて、語調を強める意を表す。「それはだ、お前が悪いんだよ」 日本国語大辞典 adds that in such usage, 「ね」「よ」 などを伴うこともある so "それはだね", "私がだよ", etc. are also often seen.


2

Here, と + 来る is an idiomatic expression. The デジタル大辞泉 entry says: 6 (「…ときたら」「…ときては」「…とくると」などの形で)ある物事を特に取り上げ強調して言う意を表す。特に…の場合は。…について言うと。「酒とくると、からっきしだめだ」「甘い物ときたら、目がない」 which roughly means "used to focus on and emphasize a particular matter; when it comes to; as for". While the examples above don't perfectly match your case, you can get the spirit and ...


1

シュワー is the sound of something moving fast, in this case, a bullet train. Onomatopoeia in Japanese is quite interesting. It plays a bigger role in everyday Japanese than it does in everyday English. There is common onomatopoeia for Japanese words where we have none for the same words in English. And Japanese speakers will use often different onomatopoeia ...


1

ありゃしない in the context means "doesn't exists". So the whole sentence means "This good price doesn't exists anywhere else in this world." By the way, ありゃしない is a spoken form of ありはしない. It consists of ある(exists) + しない(deny).



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