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11

There are obviously no official "rules" regarding the matter as it is something that each family should decide on. In the vast majority of families, howeber, one would not be taught to address one's younger uncle or aunt as 「叔父{おじ}さん」 or 「叔母{おば}さん」, respectively. That would be almost unthinkable. How one would be taught to address them by one's parents ...


7

Those two words do not assume the same roles. 少{すこ}し is an adverb and 少{すく}ない is an i-adjective. So basically, 少し will modify a verb whereas 少ない will tell that there is not much of something. Some examples. 友達{ともだち}が少ない。I don't have a lot of friends. 時間{じかん}が少なくなった。There is not much time left. (lit. Time has become rarer.) ...


7

ありがとうございます is a greeting which was lexicalized long ago, and I don't think it's a good idea to analyze it like this and try to apply the modern style guideline. And while most of the recent style guidelines do say hiragana should be used for auxiliary verbs, this is not a strict rule. Not many people strictly follow this in daily life. I can't say, for ...


6

You would use [年上]{とし・うえ} for older and [年下]{とし・した} for younger. 僕は彼女より2歳年上だ。 → I'm two years older than my girlfriend. 妹は私より5歳年下です。 → My sister is five years younger than I. You can also use them by themselves. 花子さんには年下の[旦那]{だん・な}さんがいる。 → Hanako has a younger husband. 翔平は兄弟の中で一番年上だ。 → Shōhei is the oldest of his siblings.


6

All of desu, deshita, and datta appear normally before ka. But da is an exception. In main clauses (like your examples), da is deleted before ka: desu + ka →   desu ka deshita + ka → deshita ka da + ka →   ka datta + ka →  datta ka In subordinate clauses (like [dare da ka] shiranai), da sometimes appears before ka. ...


5

I think ございます is a 丁寧語(polite form) of ある. Sources: Wiki敬語・三省堂辞書 ~がある / ~があります -> ~がございます ~である / ~です -> ~でございます Examples: 「お忘れ物のございませんようご注意ください。」 「ご不明な点・ご質問等がございましたら、こちらまでお問い合わせください。」 I live in Kansai and I don't think ございます is used more frequently here than in the east (I'm not sure if it's used less, though).


4

Basically, yes. To be a bit more strict about "formal", I'd rather say it "objective" (vs "subjective"). That is, we hardly even use のだ when we have informal speech. Another point to notice is about であるのだ. The permissive range would be quite narrow if you're going to end a sentence with it. Because, the overall mood of a sentence is decided by the ...


4

I think many people will feel uneasy if they are addressed as 叔母さん/叔父さん by someone older than them, even when they're 叔母/叔父 by definition. This is true especially when your 叔父/叔母 is relatively young. There is no single safe answer for this, but practically, you can just ask your aunt/uncle how to address them, saying something like ...


4

Yes, ~やつ is antiquated and one would only use it in a joking manner. E.g. こやつが犯人です as a caption for a funny cat pic.


4

I think it basically comes down to context. Literate native speakers can usually read most or all of the words on a page, and because they recognize most of the words, when they come to something unknown, they can generally figure out from context what the function of that unknown thing is in a sentence. For example, if it seems to be the subject of a verb ...


4

I don't know if 見やる and 見据える are antonyms, but anyway, unfortunately, many of these sentences are not natural, and do not work as you expect. 空を見やった。 Yes, this means "gave the sky a glance". 空を無頓着に見た。 I don't think this sentence is natural because 無頓着 usually means "not to be interested in something people should usually care for." (e.g., ...


4

I would say: アンクルウェイトを【つける、足首に巻く、装着する】 リストウェイトを【つける、手首に巻く、装着する】 ウェイトベストを【着る、着用する、maybe 装着する、つける】


3

~の時 (read とき{HL}) is half a suffix rather than a noun, nearly equals "when ~". So 子供の時 literally translates into "when (I was) a child". 子供の時代 means "the age of children". I don't know what it is, but it sounds very poetic. Probably what you really wanted is 子供時代; it means "childhood", and if used adverbly, "in one's childhood". (EDIT: Thus, if you compare ...


3

The difference is slight, but there definitely is a difference. The easiest way to think of it in my opinion is that "の時" means "when" and "の時代" means "generation". So, for your example, I would translate them as follows: 子供の時 - When I was a kid 子供の時代 - Our generation when I was young So, you can see that the "時代" translation doesn't work too well, ...


3

From my experience living in Japan for 19+ years, I would translate this more as disbelief: "wait, you couldn't have thought that...". Also, have a look at various translations on alc.co.jp, if you haven't already: http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=%E3%81%BE%E3%81%95%E3%81%8B&ref=sa. You'll notice they tend to align more with disbelief than surprise


3

Both ひとまえ and にんまえ exist. 人前【ひとまえ】:(noun) public place; front of the audience. 人前【にんまえ】: (counter) portion of, often for meal. 1 serving = 1人前【にんまえ】. 人前【じんぜん】(式【しき】) : (noun) A certain irreligious style of wedding, as opposed to Christian-, Shinto-, or Buddhism-style weddings.


3

地主 is an owner of the land, while 家主 is an owner of housing. Land and housing are separate objects of separate ownerships in Japan. If you rent a land from someone, he/she is 地主 for you. If you build a house on that land and rent the house to someone else, you are 家主 for him/her. When you are seeking a house, 不動産屋 wouldn't introduce you to a 地主, instead, ...


3

As Japanese native: 積む feels like many things are loaded, and also feels that they are put on top of another (and I suppose that's what pile-up means). 載せる feels like putting something on top of certain base.


3

早い is "early" in a time sense, and as an adjective. That is to say: 早く起きる Wake up early 早い時間 Early hours (there's probably a better translation than this somewhere) 早め is "earlier" in the sense of an adverb to describe something else (technically 早く is an adverb, but it's not used the same way). Compare it to the verb 早める, meaning "to advance" (in ...


3

First, "to introduce myself to X" is "Xに自己紹介する", not "Xと自己紹介する". "家を出かけた" is a bit strange, too, and you should say either "家を出た" or "出かけた" (without 家を). ある男に自己紹介するために… This is the natural choice, because you probably know who you're going to meet, and at least his name. ある男 here means "a (certain) man". This phrase is fine in a novel, but if this is ...


3

I try to be simple, but there's always something need explanation. Should I add "ka" at the end of a sentence? Or just replace "desu" and "deshita" with "da" and "datta"? Grammatically you can have them (see @snailboat's answer), but I'm not sure if you should. The reason is that, plain form + ka often sounds too harsh, unless you're a manly man ...


2

You can also use [自愛]{じ・あい}. ご自愛ください → Please take care of yourself ご自愛を祈ります → (Same) "I'll pray that you..." Using 祈る with a superiour in your company might be a little too familiar, so ください is probably the better choice here. Refer also to this question and this one.


2

In addition to istrasci's answer, a version that is often used in introductions and the like is xxつ[上]{うえ}の[person] and xxつ[下]{した}の[person] 5つ下の妹。 Younger sister five years younger 2つ上の彼女 Girlfriend two years older


2

気{き}を付{つ}けてください means "please pay attention", or "please take care of yourself", so feel free to use it. And when it comes to your superior, you can add お before 気, and say "お気をつけてください" to show respect. As for "feel better soon" or "get well soon", you can say "お大事に(おだいじに)". I think there is no problem to say it to you superior. And please pay ...


2

費用: the money for obtaining something—no matter who pay. Thus you can translate it as "cost". 支出: the money you spend or use—for whatever purpose. I think a better translation is "expenditure". What tax officers find through investigation is 不明な支出. What an hotel charges you for nothing is 不明な費用.


2

When いや is used in the sense of being a casual way to say 'no', yes, it is mostly only used by men. And as Hideki says, 嫌だ meaning disgust or dislike is the other meaning. The reason I'm submitting a separate answer that says the same as his is because of potential difference in dialect. I've been living in Tokyo for several years and I hear women(usually ...


2

There are two kinds of いや. One is the one you mentioned. It basically means 'no'. The other is a short form of 嫌{いや}だ. This word expresses a feeling of disgust / dislike. Actually young female speakers use the short form a lot. Male speakers say いやだ and seldom use the short form.


2

In fact, 必要 is not a verb, but a noun. It can be an adjective if it is followed by な. As a noun, 必要 means "a necessity" or "a need". As an adjective, it means "necessary" or "needed". そんなに高いパソコン買う必要ありますか? Is there a necessity to buy such an expensive computer? たくさんの文献を読む必要がある。 There is a necessity to read a lot of literature. ログインが必要です。 The ...


2

For example... 1) 田中さんがそう言ったら、信用するよ。 2) 田中さんがそう言うなら、信用するよ。 #1 means "If Tanaka-san says/said so, I will/would trust that." (Tanaka-san may or may not say so). #2 can mean the same, but it sounds more like "Since Tanaka-san says so, I trust that." (Tanaka-san actually said that.)


1

消え失せる is a compounded verb of 消える "disappear" + 失せる "be lost". You can reword it as 消えてなくなる. 消える only implies it disappears from your presence, or somewhere you can easy see. 失せる means it's gone and becomes irretrievable (it's not a common word today except when you say 失せろ! "Get lost!"). So, detectives can search after 消えた財宝 "missing treasures", because ...



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