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9

By far the most commonly-used word would be 「[接客]{せっきゃく}」 for the noun and 「接客する」 for the verb. It is used specifically in business where one serves a customer. 「[接]{せっ}する」 has a much broader range of meanings and therefore, it is often used in non-business situations as well - "to meet", "to treat", "to come into cantact with", etc. The word 「サービス」 is ...


8

な at the end of a sentence usually gives the sentence one of the following five meanings. 1. Seeking confirmation This usage is probably the most common. The addition of な to the end of a sentence gives the sentence the tone that the speaker is seeking confirmation. The speaker does not wish to assert that he is 100% confident about what he is ...


8

~ならではの + noun is a set phrase meaning "(noun) only seen in ~", "(noun) unique to ~", "(noun) that can be done only by ~", etc. For example, you can say 渡辺先生ならではの手術, which means "surgery that can only be performed by Dr. Watanabe." (BTW, ならでは is read ならでわ) Now, this sentence is a cleft sentence where the person name is focused. When you say "この難しい手術ができるのは", ...


7

In the descending order of certainty: ~だろう = "I think (some clause)." The speaker thinks the clause is probably (or almost certainly) true. ~ではないだろうか = "I think (some clause), isn't it?" The speaker thinks the clause is perhaps true, but he's less certain as compared to the first sentence. ~だろうか = "I wonder whether or not (some clause)." The speaker ...


6

Basically, the casual form is ~だからだ and its polite form is ~だからです. e.g. ネコだからだ(よ)。 人間だからです。 坊やだからさ。 The から is a 接続助詞(conjunctive particle), definition #1 in デジタル大辞泉: 2⃣ [接助]活用語の終止形に付く。 1 理由・原因を表す。「もう遅いから帰ろう」 (attached to the predicative form of 活用語. 1. indicates a reason or cause.) The から needs to be attached to the predicative form such ...


5

火の花 (building on OP's suggestion of 花の火) might be a good answer. For what it's worth, Mario's fireball is described as 火の玉 (= ball of fire) - not "fire that looks like a ball" or "spherical fire" but literally "ball of fire": 片手から火の玉を生み出し前方に向けて撃つ技。


5

「[流石]{さすが}!」 「[予想]{よそう}したとおりだ / です / でした!」 Yes, there is an important difference in usage and meaning between the two. (I actually have seen Japanese-learners use them incorrectly on a few occasions because they thought that both meant "Just as expected!" without a difference in usage.) When something that you have held a positive impression of ...


5

蘇生する can be used both transitively and intransitively. Basically it only means resurrecting dead people/animals. 蘇生 is also a medical term for (cardiopulmonary) resuscitation. 死者が灰から蘇生する (intransitive) 死者を灰から蘇生する (transitive) 死者を灰から蘇生させる (intransitive + causative) 蘇る is always intransitive. It can be used with 記憶, 思い出, etc., too. 死者が灰から蘇る 死者を灰から蘇らせる ...


4

The literal meaning of さすが is that like "renowned (for doing something)" or "of established reputation", so you can see this word is only appropriate for the situations someone did something good as you expected, with the intent of praising the doer. In other settings I'm afraid it sounds out of place. Additionally, it's also used in さすがの~ (adjectively) and ...


4

There's nothing really wrong about 火の花, but without some kind of context it seems a bit odd. You can always add other words to clarify that you are speaking in simile / metaphor: 夢の中で花を見た。その花が不思議なほどに鮮やかな紅蓮色をしてて、まるで火そのものでできているかのように見えた。


4

Basically, narcotics can be translated as 麻薬, which at least includes opioids like morphine and cocaine, but does not usually include 覚醒剤 like amphetamine or so-called 合法ドラッグ (legal drugs). If you need to use these terms strictly and professionally, you'll have to read serious review articles carefully, since it's "officially defined" in different ways by ...


4

女の子 literally means "female child", thus girl. Despite the hiragana in the middle, it's already one solid word, always pronounced as おんなのこ{LHHLL}. The same applies to 男の子 (boy, おとこのこ{LHHLL}). On the other hand, 子【し】 in 女子【じょし】 doesn't mean "child". The kanji here roughly means "one (who —)" (In Chinese, 男 and 女 are adjectives and not nouns, so when ...


4

TL;DR: Whichever is fine, but using くる is safer. You seem to know the basic rule, but just to make sure, this type of verb after te-form of another verb + て/で is called a subsidiary verb, and they are generally written in hiragana. What is a subsidiary verb? But this rule is not very strict, and every so often you will see people use kanji for ...


4

In my experience, when in the 〜て+くる form, it is more often written as Hiragana as opposed to Kanji. However, I don't think there is any major nuance difference. In the case when there is nothing actually physically arriving and the verb is used more metaphorically, like "わかってきた” or "頑張ってきた”, I feel like it is even more common to use Hiragana over Kanji. ...


3

Used like in the examples you gave: ために -- owing to; basically just a simple "because". せいで -- used to pin fault / blame on something / someone. おかげで -- like yuu-oniichan said, sarcastic, "thanks to"; lit. "due to the (unseen) (favourable) influence of" And my spin on a translation using them: あんたのために殺し屋の地位を失い闇の世界で迫害され身も心もズタボロになった。 Owing to you I lost ...


3

Looking at this question here it seems as though 募集 refers to the planning of recruitment whereas 採用 refers to recruitment where the person/group decision has been made. If you look a bit into the kanji, 募集 contains 集 which means to gather, bring together whereas 採用 contains 用 which means to use. Also, 募集 usually refers to recruitment whereas 採用 refers to ...


3

なんで means both "why" and "how", so なんで東京に行く? can mean both "Why do you go to Tokyo?" and "How do you go to Tokyo?" We guess from the context which meaning the なんで is being used for. If you want to be clear, you can use なにで or どうやって. These words only mean "how", so なにで or どうやって東京に行く? means only "How do you go to Tokyo?" The reason why なんで means both "why" ...


3

I'll attempt an answer with a few observations from my rather amateurish position: The sentence is rather stilted to begin with, you probably won't hear it used in practice. 何で can be pronounced both nande and nani de. Usually you'll hear people use nande for "why" and nani de for "with what" or "by what means". Usually sentences asking "why" start with ...


3

~と[思]{おも}います (to omoimasu) <-- I think ~と[申]{もう}します (to moushimasu) <-- I'm called  These just sound really similar because they are same letters/sounds.


3

Both 時間が短いながらもできる勉強というのもある and 時間が短いからこそできる勉強というのもある make sense on their own, but only the latter fits the context naturally. 「なかには ~ もある」 ("There is even ~") implies the author is trying to introduce something special and non-straightforward. 時間が短いながらもできる勉強がある ("the study you can do although there is not much time") is not surprising any more to the reader ...


3

Try translating the も as "still". 持っていっていい? lit. Is it okay when I take it away/off? 持っていってもいい? lit. Is it still okay when I take it away/off? So, the nuance is the latter expects more possibility it could make inconvenience, thus asks more carefully on whether they don't mind. The difference is, however, minimized in affirmative/interrogative ...


3

The most natural way is probably: 「関係」と「関連」は同じような意味(の言葉)です。 「関係」と「関連」は似たような意味(の言葉)です。 You can also swap particles to say 「関係」は「関連」と…, in this case, the subject will be different but the meaning is practically the same. (In case you might wonder why we can end the sentence with 意味です even though they are "words" and not "meanings", it's a kind of ...


2

Ordinarily we use なぜ = why 何で = how to distinguish. In your question case, we can not distinguish which the sentence means.


2

ロイヤルティ is royalty, the money that must be paid typically to a patent owner, a copyright holder, etc. This is a pure technical term, so see the English Wikipedia article for details. 負担 is much more common, and in financial contexts it refers to a share of money you have to pay (for whatever purpose). 負担 also means workload, (psychological) burden, etc. ...


2

I think 火の花 is ambiguous.It is difficult to be able to be judged fire or flowers by the word without context. If you want to say about flowers, you say 火のように美しい花(beautiful flowers like fire) and if you want to say about fire, you say 花のように美しい火(beautiful fire like flowers). If you use のような, のように, it will be clear.


2

「床屋」と「髪床」は、意味に違いはありませんが、「髪床」は非常に古い言葉で現在は使われません(江戸時代を連想させる言葉です)。「床屋」は現代でも使われますが、やや古い印象で、若い世代ではだんだん使わなくなってきていると思います。(「床屋」という単語は一時期放送禁止用語に入っていた†1ため、なじみが薄くなったのかもしれません。) 今の時代に「美容院」以外に髪を切る場所に関してどんな単語を使ったほうが良いですか? ...


2

"と申します" (to moushimasu) is a more formal way to say "と言う" (to iu), which both mean "to say". As you say "name + to moushimasu" is one way to introduce yourself. Keep in mind while this can translate to the English phrase "I'm called ~", it doesn't literally mean that. "と呼ばれる" (to yobareru) would be a closer literal match for that, though not commonly used ...


2

Using ~た sounds like it's confined to one specific instance and not a general statement. If the rest of the sentence was also ~た it would be ok IMO, but again different from what the general statement is saying. Think also about what ~て implies with respect to aspect: completeness of the action. It is precisely by having got into the most routine of ...


2

Basically you can use either of them. However, in professional writing, you have to write subsidiary verbs in hiragana. In 1981, Japanese government issued a cabinet directive “公用文における漢字使用等について(昭和56年内閣閣第138号)” (About Kanji Usage in Official Documents) as a part of an orthography reform. It has examples that subsidiary verbs should be written in hiragana. ...


2

Looking at the 漢字 is quite informative. You can see that 募集 is made of 募+集. Interestingly, both can be used to build verbs: 募る (to recruit) and 集まる (to gather). So 募集 means "gathering applicants" (or something like that). 募集 is seen a lot in the form of 募集中 (We are recruiting now). Note: The use of 募集 may not be limited to work: even if it can feel a little ...



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