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11

「[先週]{せんしゅう}」 can only mean one thing -- "last week", the week before this week. Your stand point is right this moment -- the present. 「[前週]{ぜんしゅう}」 has two meanings: 1) same as 先週. 2) the preceding week of a particular week in the past that one is talking about. Your stand point is in the past, not the present moment. It can be a few weeks ago, many ...


8

Despite the question seems to have reached its own solution, I'd like to make a new answer, for I find the existing explanations would not lead to a correct understanding on this topic. Each of these words has their own meaning, which usually cannot be directly translated to English affixes like "non-", "in-", "un-", or "-less", so I'm going to explain ...


8

Both are translated as "real name" in English. According to 類語例解辞典{るいごれいかいじてん}, 本名{ほんみょう} is used as opposed to the name that a person uses such as a stage name or alias. 実名{じつめい} is used when one dares to disclose one’s name. The sentences below are examples taken from 類語例解辞典{るいごれいかいじてん}: 本名{ほんみょう}/実名{じつめい}を名乗{なの}れ。 'Tell me your real name.' ...


7

Although most dictionaries or word lists translate "mizu" simply as "water", the actual meaning of "mizu" is "cold/cool water" whereas "o-yu" is "warm/hot water". So to a Japanese "atsui mizu" sounds like "hot cold water". They can understand it because they know in English there is a word called "water" including both "mizu" and "o-yu", but a Japanese ...


6

天才【てんさい】 is an innate genius who is "gifted from heaven". He/she may be extremely good at something even without much effort. 秀才【しゅうさい】 is the next commonest word in this category. A 秀才 has some great ability, probably due to his much effort, but may not be as good as 天才. I think "Elite" is closer to 秀才. I often hear phrases like "彼は秀才ではあるが天才ではない", ...


5

They're quite different words. Grammatically, all of them are used as verbs with ~する. 補充 is better translated as to replenish, that is to refill something when the number/amount of them have decreased. 補給 is a special case of 補充, whose replenishment is intended for immediate consumption. Typical ones I imagine are water for marathon runners, and ammo for ...


5

Since these come in 'bags' rather than in cups, you can use the 袋{ふくろ} counter. インスタントラーメン一袋{ひとふくろ}


3

氏 is cut out for public figures and さん is for ordinary people. さん could convey a slightly respectful nuance and that can more or less hurt fairness that newspapers must hold. (I find the order in the link determined firstly in terms of formality and that of respectfulness is secondary.)


3

In short, yes. 何時 (なんじ) asks for the time. It is analogous to 何日, 何月 and 何年. 「何時 (なんじ) に行きますか。」 「10時15分にしましょう。」 いつ is general, and includes 何時, 何日, etc. Usually it is written in hiragana. 「いつ行きますか。」 「明日にしましょう。」 or 「10時15分にしましょう。」


2

This is often shortened to 言動矛盾.


2

It's not a 100% match but pretty close to the nuance you are looking for. Often you point out something like this in Japanese as: 矛盾{むじゅん}している。 E.g. 言葉{ことば}と行動{こうどう}が矛盾{むじゅん}してる。 That is, "your words and your actions are contradictory". Hope that helps!


2

In general, We call what you might think of as "あつい水" -> "(お)湯". "あつい水" is not used in conversation for that meaning. However, "あつい(お)湯" is also and can be used.


1

が ○ 私は電車で行きますが、あなたはどうしますか。 × 私は電車で行っても、あなたはどうしますか。 × 私は電車で行くのに、あなたはどうしますか。 The spirit of が is not contradiction, but that the next phrase comes from "other direction". Since English language doesn't have a word wholly translates it, it could become "and", "while", "when", or even "so". But as far as I know, Korean, Vietnamese and Polish have similar ...


1

It sounds unnatural to me. If a native speaker hears the sentence, he/she will imagine an unrealistic taxi which is completely white (including body, wheel, sheets, and so on). Instead, you should say: 「全部のタクシーが白い。」or「タクシーは全部白い。」. But the latter may be ambiguous depending a context, which may again mean "The taxi is completely white.".


1

積極的 being translated to "optimistically" would be limited to taking on a task that seems doomed from the outset. The actual meaning is more along the line of positively, actively and such an effort may be viewed as optimistic when the odds are against you.


1

無限 = infinity. 永久 = eternity. 常: rarely used as a standalone noun. It's something like ever- in evergreen, etc.


1

As I'm not a native speaker, my opinion is hardly useful. However, here are links that probably have the answer that you want: As per the accepted answer to using 美化語{びかご} in 謙譲語{けんじょうご} verb forms does not make sense, right?, your assertion that " I know that adding お makes it honorific, but ... " does not seem correct. A native speaker discussion of what ...


1

Let me answer since these are interesting and you gave me a good drive. As is here, http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/leaf/thsrs/4689/m0u/%E8%8B%B1%E6%89%8D/ [使い分け] 【1】「秀才」「英才」は、頭が良く、学業成績が優秀な人。 【2】「俊才」は、学問の領域だけでなく、手腕のすぐれた人物、抜きん出た才知のある人物にもいう。 英才 is defined as a bright man soooo educated. 俊才 is, a bright man not only good at learning but also good at another ( ...



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