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12

"授業を受ける" refers to the act of being in a class while a class is in progress. You should mentally picture you being in a class room, at the very moment the teaching is going on. "授業を取る" on the other the hand refers to the act of registering to a class, for a semester for example. It need not involve your being present in a class room at the moment.


9

I will try to explain the expressions in the order that most native speakers would learn them, hoping that that alone might tell the learner something. The first one is definitely 「[習]{なら}う」. Any 4-year-old would know what it means and would be able to use it correctly. In order to 習う something, you need a teacher. Simply put, if you learn something ...


8

Generally speaking, yes, words like 魚類, 人類, and 哺乳類 sound more technical and scientific than 魚, 人, or 哺乳動物. 魚【さかな】(和語) is the word we usually use when we want to say fish in daily life, for example at supermarkets, while 魚類 (漢語) is only used in the biological context. I think the basic difference between 人 and 人類 is the same as the difference between person ...


7

It might be valuable to preface this by saying that many buildings in Japan do not have any kind of central heating system. They rely on various kinds of discrete units to provide heating. The difference in the units will be in their heating mechanisms and the extent to which they can heat a certain area. To state the difference very simply, a ストーブ in home ...


7

「[電卓]{でんたく}」 is originally short for 「[電子式卓上計算機]{でんししきたくじょうけいさんき}」, meaning that the two words refer to the same thing -- an electronic pocket (or desk) calculator. We also use the word 「計算機」 to mean the same thing as above. Thus, you may call any one of the TI products you mentioned using any one of the three words I mentioned. Additionally, you could ...


6

会社の名前{なまえ} consists of two nouns, one describing the other. The one with の is in genitive case which is used to indicate possession in this case. It's roughly equivalent to 's or of in English: company's name or the name of the company (both are translated to 会社の名前). Note that 名前 is a native Japanese word and it uses kun-yomi reading of the kanji in this ...


6

I think I would probably say スカイプで話しませんか?


5

How about: ほんの少し|just a little The ほん comes from 本 but the examples in my Progressive dictionary are all use hiragana. Logically 日本語はほんの少ししか知らない。= I only know a little Japanese. (The extra し makes it a little tricky to say)


5

Informally, we say 「~~に[乗]{の}る」 or 「~~に[入]{はい}る」. Formally and officially, we say 「~~に[進入]{しんにゅう}する」.


4

We have two different words here -- two different で's. Auxiliary verb vs. Particle. In the phrase 「[秋]{あき}の[風]{かぜ}は[静]{しず}かで」, the 「で」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい} (= "continuative form") of the affirmation auxiliary verb 「だ」. Thus, the phrase will surely be followed by another phrase in regular prose-style writing. As a title of a creative writing, however, ...


4

The first one you can use (put stress on the 日本 and it emphasizes where the souvenir came from). With no stress it's "This is a Japanese souvenir." For something which literally means that, you can use から. 'This souvenir is from Japan' これは日本からのお[土産]{みやげ}です。 'This is a souvenir from Yoshi' これはよしさんからのお土産です。 Bonus: これはよしさんからもらったお土産です。


4

Although being 漢語, "値段" (mixed kun-on compound) is a rather colloquial word, used in most part of our daily life. In most cases, 値段 refers to "how much we/you have to pay" in individual transactions, from the viewpoint of those who buy or sell the item. 慌てて買う前に、値段をよく確かめよう。 あのお店でレアなグッズを見つけたけど、値段が高すぎて買えなかったよ。 Using 価格 in casual conversations like ...


3

There seem to be at least two reasons that no one so far has answered your questions. 1) Food names -- the older foods in particular -- differ greatly from one region to another. 2) おぼろ has become increasingly unpopular during the last few decades; therefore, the younger members may actually have never seen or eaten it. " Are there any other common ...


3

The nature of sound shortening is often, due to the environment that spawns such changes, rather 'casual' and colloquial. Much like how 様 and さん have relatively different levels of 'politeness' so do お疲れさま and お疲れさん. (Speaking merely from personal experience, I have only used お疲れさん among friends and casual acquaintances in informal situations. Among equal ...


3

Basically, from low to high (and high to low) お疲れさまです from high to low ご苦労様です お疲れさん ご苦労さん In many cases, the act of 省略 generally decreases the level of honour.


3

Your observation is correct. I'm not sure about the etymology, but as a matter of fact, we can use 「お疲れさん」 to someone whose status is equal to or lower than ourselves. Addressing it to your boss is clearly rude. Personally, I usually stick to 「お疲れさまです」 in a business setting, because I think saying お疲れさん is over-friendly and shows little or no respect. Even ...


3

会社{かいしゃ}の名前{なまえ} is grammatically fine, and while compound nouns are sometimes formed by simply eliminating the の particle (e.g.,本{ほん}の棚{たな} -> 本棚{ほんだな} or 勉強{べんきょう}の不足{ふそく} -> 勉強不足{べんきょうぶそく}), in this case the word you are looking for is: 会社名{かいしゃめい} (the on-yomi of 名 is generally used in compound nouns and has the same meaning as 名前{なまえ} as a whole: name). ...


2

旬 is a way to group the day of month by its second decimal digit. The days of months whose second digit is 0, 1, and 2 respectively belong to 上旬, 中旬, and 下旬. Strictly following this rule, the days 30 and 31 should not belong to any of them, but by adjustment, they belong to 下旬. 始め (beginning), 半ば (midst), and 終わり (end) have nothing particularly to do with ...


2

One of the uses of the の particle (that you will learn early on in Japanese) is to show possession. "Company Name" is the same as "Company's Name". Company's Name = 会社の名前


2

Both are grammatically correct and they both mean "An article about dogs has been written in the Asahi Sinbun" though the former can't specify who wrote it as you say. The former (書いてある version) seems to apear often in everyday conversation.


2

闇{やみ} and 怨{おん} are not really related at all. 闇{やみ} means "darkness", approximately (as well as some related concepts). 怨{おん} doesn't stand on its own, but is part of words like 怨{うら}み and 怨念{おんねん} which both mean "grudge", approximately. Maybe if you explain what made you think they were related a better answer can be given?


2

In casual speech, ちょこっと is usually used. コーヒーは? はい。ちょこっとだけです。 It's more of a modification of ちょっと somewhat akin to how we say "teeny" to make tiny seem even smaller.


1

In addition to answers above: ちょっとしか分からない - I can understand not more than a little. ちょっとだけ分かる - I understand very little only (this can be perceived as a humble phrase which actually means you are positioning yourself as very knowledgeable).


1

Even though it's not in your question, I'm going to throw in another important contextual word. [研究]{けんきゅう}する. If you are in graduate school (at least at the doctoral level) or a researcher, you should generally speaking not refer to what you do as [勉強]{べんきょう}する, i.e. "study." Instead, you 研究する, i.e. "do research." The same basic rule exists in America ...


1

By chance I just read something new (for me) on these expressions which explains Choko's answer (〜ませんか?): 〜ましょうか? is used when the speaker is in a position to make the relevant decision. When used as an invitation toward someone with who the speaker is not too close it can sound too familiar. ==>> 〜ませんか? is used as a polite invitation. The ...


1

Addition to the answer above. To ask where some goods are produced you can say: "...は[何処]{どこ}[産]{さん}ですか?" To ask where a person is from, you may ask (politely): "ご出身はどこですか?" or rather informal form: "どこから来たのですか?"


1

I would call all the TI series shown above 「電卓」rather than 「計算機」. Indeed, 「電卓 (calculator)」is a small, portable「計算機 (computer)」.



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