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5

It appears that you may be overanalyzing the phrase a little bit. 「(Verb) + とするか」 is a set phrase that one says to oneself meaning: "Time to (verb)!" or "Gotta (verb)!" You do not need a listener to say this even out loud, either. "I know that とする can mean "to decide to", like にする, the sentence would then mean : I (just decided that) am ...


4

In this case, it isn't the volitional form, but よう(様). See this entry in the 大辞泉, sense 2 and 6. よう〔ヤウ〕【様】 2 方法。やり方。 6 動詞の連用形の下に付いて複合語をつくる。 ありさま、ようすなどの意を表す。 …する方法、…するやり方などの意を表す。 Therefore, 名づけようもなく could literally be interpreted as [there] not even being a way/possibility to name [it], .... Or shorter, it cannot be named or ...


4

〔一段活用・二段活用の動詞に推量の助動詞「む」を伴ったもの,例えば,「見む」「受けむ」などは,中世末期までに「みう」「うけう」から「みょう」「うきょう」の形に変‌​化していたが,そこから,動詞未然形「み」「うけ」と助動詞「よう」とが分かれて,助動詞「よう」が生ずるに至った。現代語のように,五段活用の動詞には「う」が,その他の‌​活用の動詞には「よう」が付くというように,接続のしかたを補い合うような用法が一般的になるのは近世江戸語以降のことである〕 ― 大辞林 entry for よう Combinations of monograde (一段) and bigrade (二段) verbs with the conjecture auxiliary -mu, for example ...


3

Yes, it can. I remember my teacher at school (here in Japan) sometimes using 頑張りましょう when talking about activities that he would not directly take part in. He was however peripherally involved, like being the one setting the test he was referring to with his 頑張りましょう。 I'd say that there needs to be at least a link between the person using this form and the ...


3

「それなら一息入れようか。」 "My gut feeling is to to translate this as "because of that, can (I) really take a breather?" Mine is to translate it as "Let's take a break then, shall we?" I used the all-purpose "then". I could not think of a situation or context where 「それなら」 in 「それなら一息入れようか」 would mean "because of that", but you are the one who knows the ...


2

It means "he meant to dip the string through that hole and fish". When the subject is 2nd or 3rd person, というのだ or ということだ work. Otherwise, it has to be ということだ only, i.e. you can't use というのだ for "I mean"(*) or "it means". (* Accurately, というのだ for "I mean" still works when you express your own action through other person's perspective.)


2

よう(だ) in this sentence is used to express inference based on reliable information (often based on what the speaker sees) or similarity. It is not the volitional form of a verb. You can translate it as "look like", "look as if", "seem", "be like", etc. It is often used with まるで which gives it more emphatic meaning "just like", "exactly as if". A verb can ...



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