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2

It might help to think about what's going on with 「ておく」 and 「とく」 in romaji. " 勉強 shiteoku " The we just drop the 'e' ('cause we're cool kids)... " 勉強 shitoku " The same kind of thing happens all the time with 「い」"i" 「何食べている?」 becomes 「何たべてる?」 (just drop the 「い」) "Nani tabeteiru?" becomes "Nani tabeteru?" (Just drop the 'i') This can seem more ...


4

「~~させ (causative verb form) + て + いただく」 expresses receiving the permission (or opportunity) to perform an action from another person. 「いただく」 = 「もらう」 in meaning. Former is only politer than the latter. 「[取]{と}らせていただいた」 means "I/We received the permission to take/collect ~~." One could also use as a translation "I/We had the pleasure of ...


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


0

It is very natural to interpret the sentence in the first way, as a Japanese native speaker. However, the punctuation is not correct. ハイリアの民は、ふしぎな力を あやつることができた、と言います。 is more correct. If you would like to say in the latter manner, the following sentences are appropriate: in a present sense, ハイリアの民は、ふしぎな力を あやつることできる、と言っています。 or, in a past sense, ...


7

I would say ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っている。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っています。(polite form) (not *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思う。/ *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思います。) to say "Bob thinks that prices are high", ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようだ。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようです。(polite form) to say "It seems that Bob thinks prices are high", and ボブさんによれば、物価が高いそうだ。(casual form) ...


3

I think #2 is a little more natural especially in everyday conversation. However, #1 is still often found in articles or such. off-topic: If you want to use ~によれば, it's 「…によれば今の…では株価が高い。」, 「・・・株価が高いそうだ」 or 「・・・株価が高いとのこと(だ)」 Bobさんによれば株価が高いと思っている(ようだ) means "Bob said he/she (not Bob himself) thinks stock price is high for the current economy".


4

The difference is very subtle, but there is a difference. With と言います, it sounds as if the myth is actually true or people somehow believe it. With と言われています, it sounds as if it is an actual myth. There is no rule that says you must use と言われています when indicating a myth. I've never played the game, but you can probably infer that the maiden actually believes ...


0

奏でる, which is the verb “to play” when talking about, among other instruments, the guitar (can also use 弾く、かき鳴らす) and the violin. You should also note for future reference that the only way a verb can end with an え-row kana and then たり is if たり replaced る.


3

Yes, it can. I remember my teacher at school (here in Japan) sometimes using 頑張りましょう when talking about activities that he would not directly take part in. He was however peripherally involved, like being the one setting the test he was referring to with his 頑張りましょう。 I'd say that there needs to be at least a link between the person using this form and the ...



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