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1

As other users told 折る is a transitive verb that requires an objective such as 折り紙を折る - do an origami. 折れる is an intransitive verb, like 箸が折れる chopsticks snap. It requires a subjective. 折る、折れる aren't necessarily referring to physical objects like a branch, tree, bones, and a window glass. It can be used for abstract objects, for examples: 骨を折る - make an ...


5

This is an example of a [自他]{じ・た} pair. These pairs are an important concept to learn in Japanese because there are a ton of them! [Here]{LLLL} [are]{LLL} [several]{LLLLLLL} [resources]{LLLLLLLLL} with lots of examples and good explanations. 折る is a [他動詞]{た・どう・し} which is a transitive verb. This means an external agent/influence performs the action in ...


6

To add to @Locksleyu's answer, 出す in "the continuative form of a verb (動詞の連用形) + 出す" can mean either: ㋐ そうすることによって外や表面に現れるようにする意を表す。「しぼり―・す」「見つけ―・す」 to make something reveal/appear outside or on the surface by doing the action, eg 「しぼり出す」(squeeze out) 「見つけ出す」(find out) or ㋑ その動作を始める意を表す。「降り―・す」「笑い―・す」 to start the action, eg 「降り出す」(start to ...


4

折る is a transitive verb and 折れる is intransitive. Keep in mind 折れる could also mean the conjugated potential form of 折る.


2

This phenomenon is called ら抜き ("omitting ら"). The two forms mean exactly the same. Grammatically, ichidan verbs like 食べる have a potential form 食べられる instead of 食べれる, as you already know. But in recent times, people (especially young) have started saying 食べれる anyway despite its ungrammatical status. Removing ら only works for potential, not passive. Without ...


4

In your example 救い is not an adjective, but rather the pre-masu form of 救う, "to save". The grammar is the normal pattern of "pre-masu form" + "出す". However, rather than thinking of 救い出す as meaning "to start to save", I think it's better to just think of it as a separate verb, as shown in the dictionary. Based on this dictionary definitions, it mostly means ...


3

Since the question regards "expressing love" I feel compelled to add something. It is very important to underline that "expressing love" in Japan is a concept that can be very very different from the way we are used to see it "in the west" (to make a rough generalisation, say mostly Europe and North America). Based on both personal and friends experiences ...


1

愛する is a verb and 愛している is a progressive form of it. We say commonly を愛している than を愛する。 I think we say 好き with a light heart than を愛している.


1

愛する sounds like "I will love you", but not "I love you now". So, 愛している is correct. If you're close enough to say such a thing, you can change している→してる. It sounds more relaxed! You can say 「[other person's name]のことがすきだ」 if you're a guy, or 「[other person's name]のことがすき」 if you're a girl. You can replace the name with a word for "you" like きみ or あなた if you ...


3

I apologize for the errors. The ending is actually part of an old auxiliary ます, which is, I may say, its remnant. As the linked Kotobank page says, まする is an old ending / attributive form of 丁寧語{ていねいご}-ます-. Kotobank also says as follows: [補説]現代語では、仮定形「ますれ」とともにその使用は限られ、形式ばった堅苦しい表現に用いられるだけである。 Translation: [Additional Information]Today, together ...


9

“あり” is a 終止形 of “ある,” the same as “なし” and “ない” as mentioned by 永劫回帰. It can be compared with an English pair word, “Yes (we have) and No (we don’t have)”. The 漢語 version of “あり・なし” are “有・無”, both of which are commonly used. Here are some examples: 雀斑【そばかす】あり – have freckles. 欠点【けってん】あり(の商品) – (a product) with a flaw 曰【いわく】あり – have something with a ...


7

ほしい isn't a verb, it's an adjective. You can think of it like the English word "wanted"or "desired". So, a ほしいもの is a wanted or desired thing.


26

Short answer: It's a politeness marker. Long answer: You can't think of Japanese in terms of English. In the English sentence I want a dog, it's true that want is a verb. But in the Japanese sentence 犬{いぬ}がほしいです, the word ほしい is an adjective, not a verb. Even though you can express the same basic idea in both languages, the grammar to do so is quite ...


20

Just want to add to @永劫回帰's answer, which is a good one explaining the origin of the verb form 「あり」. Prose/Composition Grammar vs. Other Sets of Grammar: While a sentence like 「[保育園]{ほいくえん}がある。」 or 「保育園があります。」 is just perfect if used in prose or compositions. Those contain not a single sign of wordiness or unnaturalness in them. After all, each sentence ...


15

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery


0

I think you refer to something like: 何々{なになに}がある(ん)ですけど。。。or similar examples/situations. Edit: the example above is not exactly right. See the comment in the end. You can find lots of explanations about the form ~んです browsing the internet a little bit. A quite extensive one is here: https://www.jpf.go.jp/j/project/japanese/teach/tsushin/grammar/201006....



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