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12

[閉]{し}まる is intransitive, [閉]{し}める, [閉]{と}ざす, [閉]{た}てる are transitive, and [閉]{と}じる can be transitive and intransitive. [閉]{し}まる -- intransitive. Something (physically) closes. 「ドアが閉まる」 a door closes 「門が閉まる」a gate closes 「店が閉まる」 a shop closes / shuts down [閉]{し}める -- transitive. To (physically) close something. 「ドアを閉める」 close a door 「門を閉める」 close a gate ...


11

Can you say "日本語する"? I suppose you can use it idiomatically or somewhat playfully (perhaps akin to something like "I'm Japanese-ing it up"), but it's not a real verb that is used. If the answer is no, how can "日本語できる" be grammatically correct? Without realizing it, you are actually saying "日本語が分かることができます。". 日本語できる is really just dropping the が ...


9

When used on their own, 始める and 出す are always transitive. However, when used as an auxiliary verb, 始める and 出す will always be used instead of their intransitive counterparts. The main verb, the verb that this helping verb attaches to, is the real determiner of transitivity. Transitivity has nothing to do with the auxiliary verb. For example, because 降る is ...


8

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


8

All of desu, deshita, and datta appear normally before ka. But da is an exception. In main clauses (like your examples), da is deleted before ka: desu + ka →   desu ka deshita + ka → deshita ka da + ka →   ka datta + ka →  datta ka In subordinate clauses (like [dare da ka] shiranai), da sometimes appears before ka. ...


8

Yes it's a sentence-ending particle which is usually used in monologues. One article says the main function of this っと is to casually convince/confirm something to the speaker themselves. Perhaps it's like saying 'okay' to yourself. これで良しっと。 今日も1日お疲れさまでしたっと。 (before going to bed, to oneself) Occasionally it's used when there's an actual ...


8

Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that? Yes, that is precisely the idea! Now, a grammar explanation... 「なる」 here means "to reach a certain (new) state" and you will keep encountering this usage of the word as long as you study Japanese. That is a promise from a native speaker. 「[連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なる」= "to ...


8

This 願わくば is a fixed expression fossilized long ago, and you just have to memorize it without thinking about it too much. It's a literary expression that corresponds to "Hopefully, ..." used as a sentence adverb. As pointed out in the comment, this is related to ク語法, a grammatical feature which had already dropped out of use more than 1000 years ago. It was ...


8

If you are listing multiple actions in a set (eg. of things you like) then you would use verb+たり〜verb+たりするのが好き. 旅行したり、映画を見たりするのが好きです。 I like to do things like watching movies and travelling. Your initial sentence reads like the two actions are connected. As you like to first travel somewhere and then watch a movie there.


8

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


7

来なんだ = 来なかった. The negative past. You often hear this form in 時代劇 and from old people in fiction (think [波平]{なみへい} in Sazaesan, Dumbledore in Harry Potter...) デジタル大辞泉の解説 なんだ[助動] [助動][なんだら|なんで(なんだり)|なんだ|なんだ(なんだる)|なんだれ|○]動詞型活用語の未然形に付く。過去の打消しの意を表す。なかった。 ...


7

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying ...


7

You could argue that the てしまう* doesn't technically add any new information to the sentence in the form of a subject or object, but that's not to say that it's not useful. *This is the same thing as てしまいます but in plain form -- don't worry about it for now, it's not relevant to this discussion Firstly, to clear up your question, the てしまいました is actually ...


7

You're on the right track. A dictionary specifically defines this usage of よう as: 6 実現の可能性の意を表す。「あの男がそんな悪いことをしようはずがない」 It's usually used in the form of masu-form + よう + が + ある or masu-form + よう + が + ない, which mean "there's a way of ~ing" or "there's no way of ~ing", respectively. So, yes, 答えの出しようのない疑問 literally means "question for which there is no ...


7

立ちて死すべし The 立ち is the continuative form (連用形) of the archaic verb 立つ. The て is the conjunctive particle (接続助詞), i.e. 立ちて is the te-form of 立つ in Classical Japanese. 死す is a literary, bookish way of saying 死ぬ. As in @broccoliforest's comment below 死す is the archaic form of 死する. So in modern Japanese I think it would be like 「立って死ぬべき(だ)」 or 「立って死ぬべし」, ...


7

As you can see here, 吹く can be transitive and intransitive. 風が吹く(自動詞) 笛を吹く(他動詞) So 風が強く吹いている。 can translate to "(lit.) The wind is blowing hard." i.e. "It's blowing hard."


6

合える is the Potential conjugation of 合う。 Attaching ~ 合う (あう)to the end of a verb stem means to do the action with each other or to do the action mutually with someone else. (See more examples on the source page) Attaching 〜合う and 〜合える in this way is pretty common. To determine whether it would be fitting in a certain situation, a good rule of thumb is ...


6

Am I using は and が right? ×私は山田さんが描きました。 ○私は山田さんを描きました。I drew Yamada-san. ○私は山田さんの[絵]{え}を描きました。I drew a picture of Yamada-san. You have to mark the direct object (the thing the verb acts upon) with を.Like in 私はパンを食べます (I eat bread), for example, where you mark the thing you eat with を. Here you attach を to the thing you drew. Am I using the right ...


6

In meaning, 「[信]{しん}じ[歩]{ある}く」= 「信じ、歩く」= 「信じて歩く」 ≒ 「信じて、(そして)[生]{い}きていく」 In other words, 「歩く」 does not necessarily mean "to walk" here. It is used metaphorically to mean "to live one's life (from here on)". 「いいの」=「いいのですか」=「いいのでしょうか」 It is in a question form and in this case, the speaker is asking himself a question. 「Verb + ば ...


6

Japanese verbs can be divided into three groups (godan verbs, ichidan verbs and irregular verbs). Nevertheless, the -ます form is not the best to tell them apart. Godan verbs (Group I) ends in く、ぐ、う、ぶ、る、ぬ、つ、む、す. Examples are: 行{い}く、泳{およ}ぐ、買{か}う、遊{あそ}ぶ、上{あ}がる、死{し}ぬ、待{ま}つ、読{よ}む、話{はな}す. There is some overlapping with verb ending in る.I mean that you have to ...


6

First, Group III is the easiest to devide because 来{く}る and する are the only verbs that belong to it. These verbs have each irregular conjugation as you probably know. Then, if the verb ends with another than ''る'', it belongs to Group I. For example, you can tell which group 行{い}く belongs to, because it ends with ''く'' which is another than ''る''. Yes, ...


6

Almost certainly it's from すねる + ぐれる. Because there is no in-between て, すねぐれる sounds like it's an established compound verb (such as 飛び起きる, こぼれ落ちる, 遊び呆ける), but I haven't seen this combination before. From what I could google, it probably is a rare dialect word used in the eastern part of Japan. This page lists すねぐれる as an 茨城弁 term. すねぐれる 【動】拗ねる、ひねくれる ...


6

The former option is close, but you should use transitive 見つける instead of 見つかる. メガネを見つけた - (I) found my glasses The reason you should use 見つける instead of 見つかる is because the former is transitive (takes a direct object, with を) and the latter is intransitive (is done on its own). In other words, 見つける is the process of someone finding something, whereas ...


6

です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...


6

Basically, the casual form is ~だからだ and its polite form is ~だからです. e.g. ネコだからだ(よ)。 人間だからです。 坊やだからさ。 The から is a 接続助詞(conjunctive particle), definition #1 in デジタル大辞泉: 2⃣ [接助]活用語の終止形に付く。 1 理由・原因を表す。「もう遅いから帰ろう」 (attached to the predicative form of 活用語. 1. indicates a reason or cause.) The から needs to be attached to the predicative form such ...


6

To break it down, はじめまして is the て form of はじめます, and はじめます is the polite form of はじめる. はじめまして is a fixed expression. You'll see ~~まして in some fixed expressions such as: あけましておめでとうございます。-- Happy new year. どういたしまして。-- You are welcome. as well as in polite/formal speech or writing such as: ご来店くださいまして、誠にありがとうございます。 -- Thank you for ...


5

I'm going to try to do two things in this answer. First, I'm going to try to address the tangle of terms and theories that have got you confused. (So this answer will unfortunately be rather long!) Second, I'll try to address the specific question of 誘う. Feel free to skip any section that doesn't look immediately helpful :-) What do '-u verb' and ...


5

This may be too obvious to OP, but we can use られる and say like this: その本{ほん}を読んで{よんで}みられると良い{よい}でしょう。 食べて{たべて}みられることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 正直{しょうじき}に言って{いって}みられてはどうですか。 But I recommend that you try to apply honorifics to the main verb (these are more common, and perhaps politer, too): その本{ほん}をお読み{およみ}になってみると良い{よい}でしょう。 召し{めし}上が{あが}ってみることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 ...


5

I think your understanding is sufficient. To answer your second question....嫌う can also imply willingness to avoid. So for example, ゴブリンは闇を嫌わずに行きつづけた。 Literally it translates to: Goblin, not disliking the darkness, kept going. Maybe it actually likes it dark, or maybe it was just brave for the moment. Nevetheless, It had no willingness to avoid ...


5

''することができる'' isn't ill-advised at all. Generally, you can say ''(verb, dictionary form)~ことができる'' when someone can do something, of course you can say ''することができる''. You don't have to care about duplicating ''する''. There are many verbs like ''勉{べん}強{きょう}する'', ''質{しつ}問{もん}する'', etc. These ''する-form verb'' can be appended to ''ことができる'', such as ...



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