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11

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, !you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


10

I think the most universal way of expressing trying is using て-form of a verb followed by みる. For example: 電話してみるよ。 I will try calling you. お好み焼きを食べてみたい。 I want to try eating okonomiyaki. In addition, what you can express in English as "try" as in "have you tried?" is sometimes asking about past experience and can be expressed in Japanese as ...


10

Only やる is acceptable in some common phrases: やった!I did it! ×した! やられた!You got me! ×された! やれ、やれ!Go for it! ×しろ、しろ! やられたらやり返せ。Eye for an eye. ×されたらし返せ。 やってくる come along ×してくる やっていく get along, make a living ×していく やっちまえ!Get him! ×しちまえ! やる is used/preferred for: 何時までやってますか?(≒営業する open; on business) ×何時までしてますか? 演奏会でピアノをやる(≒演奏する perform) ...


9

The ーし part comes from する, indeed. It is the infinitive form, or what some grammarians like Seiichi Makino call the "masu stem": the form of the verb that takes -ます. する → し → します なさい is the imperative form of なさる, which is a honorific word which means the same as する. Infinitives combine with なさい to form firm, but polite orders. For instance, telling ...


9

I think here あそびに means something like "for fun" or "for leisure". In other words, they came on a pleasure trip, not for business or studying. What may be confusing is that it's natural to express this in Japanese directly when you'd express it only indirectly in English. Phrases like "came to visit" or "went to see" generally imply that it's for pleasure ...


8

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


8

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


8

This な, expressing an order, can be thought of as coming from a shortened version of なさい: 見なさい! → 見な! It attaches to the 連用形 of a verb, which is the same form 〜ます attaches to: 見 + ます  = 見ます 見 + な   = 見な 動き + ます = 動きます 動き + な  = 動きな It is easily confused with another な, which expresses an order not to do something; this other な attaches ...


8

Your confusion appears to come from the fact that there are two different 「だと」's. 1) When 「だと」 is used as the colloquial form of 「であると」, only nouns can directly precede it. Here, the na-adjective stems are naturally included as well. 「[花子]{はなこ}さんはとてもきれいだと[聞]{き}いている。」 = "I hear that Hanako is very pretty." ...


7

These Romance language concepts simply do not apply to Japanese. In addition to the points made in a comment by Zhen Lin, Japanese does not have genders, and its nouns are indeclinable. Its verbs do not conjugate for grammatical person either. Japanese also does not have a grammatical requirement to supply subjects or pronouns with verbs. The way to ...


7

I agree that this is very difficult. One way I've found that usually works is to use context to determine the correct reading. Often one of the readings will have specific nuances that the others don't, so the context of the sentence can help you out. One example that I personally encounter all the time is 汚れる. It can be read as both よごれる and けがれる. They ...


7

This is called a relative clause, and they are pretty interesting in Japanese. Rules from English do not transfer very well at all. た-form in relative clauses There are two ways to interpret the た-form of a verb in a relative clause: as past as non-past, if: the verb has a 'result state', there is no overt actor, explaining the state change does not ...


7

I don't know what you mean by "-せる" form. -せる can appear at the end of the verb in at least two ways. As the potential form of a verb, which ends in -す. 帰す -> 帰せる As the causative form of a verb. 帰る -> 帰らせる Here, -せる is the potential form of the verb 倒す, so 倒す "to throw over, to knock down" 倒せる "to be able to throw over / knock down" 倒せない "not ...


7

It's Kansai dialect. I don't think it's official 敬語 recognized by 文科省. It's 尊敬語. 食べはる ≒ 食べられる, 召し上がる [来]{き}はる ≒ [来]{こ}られる, いらっしゃる 先生が来はった。≒ 先生が来られた, 先生がいらっしゃった I think ~~はる sounds less polite/formal than the standard 尊敬語. I think it comes from なさる (--> なはる --> はる ?)


7

Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite: それはリンゴだ  That is an apple それはリンゴです That is an apple (polite) But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives: あかい    is red あかいです  is red (polite) When it's a politeness marker, です doesn't inflect for tense: あかいです    is red (polite) あかかったです  was red (polite) The ...


6

しなさい is a verb conjugation that turns the verb する into a command (imperative form). There are a number of imperative forms, but this one in particular gives the nuance of "talking down" or giving advice that you feel is helpful to the listener (but keep in mind, it carries the connotation that you know better than the listener). This is generally how a ...


6

止まれ is the imperative form, so it's basically equivalent to "Stop!". I'm not sure where you get "rough intransitive" from. 止まる is intransitive already and 止める transitive. Although the imperative is usually considered too blunt for speech, the 止まれ road sign is usually the best example for a standard use of the imperative. The imperative for 五段 verbs (e.g. ...


6

There is a class of verbs, sometimes called suru-verbs, which are formed from a noun + the verb する, e.g. [料理]{りょうり}する = to cook So, 料理しますか。 Do you cook? 料理していますか。 Are you cooking? To learn how to form simple sentences like this, you need to know how to form questions and how to look up word in a dictionary: The second word you looked up ...


6

Let me see if I can address these one at a time: 私は成田空港で [ 外国でも使える 携帯電話 ] を 借りてきたから、問題がないよ。 The relative clause 外国でも使える is modifying 携帯電話, so 外国でも使える携帯電話 means "a cell phone that can be used even overseas". 私は成田空港で外国でも使える携帯電話を借りてきたから、問題がないよ。 借りてきた means "borrowed", but since money was probably exchanged for the phone, I think "rented" is ...


6

The main differences are in the formality/informality of these words, not really in their meanings. They all mean "to roam about (aimlessly)" and I will mention the small difference in nuance later on. 「ぶらつく」 and 「うろつく」 are more informal than 「さまよう」. The existence of the onomatopoeias 「ぶらぶら」 and 「うろうろ」 should tell you something about the colloquiality of ...


5

読める、買える、書ける、... → Potential Form (可能形) and this: 読まれる、買われる、書かれる、... → Passive form (受け身形) and this: 読ませる、買わせる、書かせる、... → Causative form (使役【しえき】形) "Conjugation" is correct, and you can say 動詞の活用(形).


5

What's the deal with these triplets? Why are there two accepted verbs of one form for the same meaning? Are they somehow different? Yes, their usage is slightly different. A web article below well answers your question: Coexistent transitive verbs : "Tsunagu" and "Tsunageru" http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110004672022 For '繋げる/繋ぐ' case: '繋ぐ' refers to ...


5

In English, you might be able to think of those forms like this: 思った ー (I) thought 思ってた and 思っていた ー (I) was thinking, (I) had thought, or (I) had been thinking. Do note that 思ってた and 思っていた are the same... but 思っていた is more of a form you would want to use in formal writing. In conversational writing, however, you are often free to use either form ...


5

A) 1) 食べる羊 can be ① "the sheep that eats" 羊 is the subject for 食べる. 「羊が食べる」>>「食べる羊」 ② "the sheep to eat" "the sheep you/someone eat(s)" 羊 is the object for 食べる. 「羊を食べる」>>「食べる羊」 2) 食べられる羊 When the 羊 is the subject for 食べられる. 「羊が食べられる」>>「食べられる羊」 The (ら)れる can be: ① a passive auxiliary verb. "the sheep that is eaten" eg.狼に食べられる羊 ② a potential auxiliary verb. ...


5

I'm familiar with the following options. いらない いらないです いりません 結構です いい いいです Their usage overlaps (after all, they all mean "no, thank you" in some sense). 結構です is quite formal and いいです probably the most common option, closely followed by いらないです. (The forms based on いらない are more direct.) If you want to be informal, use いい or いらない. The ...


5

料理 and 絵 aren't verbs. They're nouns. Your dictionary should say so. In the case of 料理, you can add する to make 料理する, which means "to prepare food". (It doesn't necessarily mean to heat it up, though, so it might not be exactly the same as English "cook".) In the case of 絵, you can use the phrase 絵を描{か}く. (Although this is one way to say "to paint a ...


5

「[勝]{か}たしてくれ」 is only the colloquial form of 「勝たせてくれ」. 「勝たせ」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) of the causative verb 「勝たせる = "to let win" or "to make win"」. Needless to say, 「勝たせる」 consists of the verb 「勝つ = "to win"」 and the auxiliary verb 「せる = "to cause to"」.  「て」 is a connective particle. 「くれ」 is the [命令形]{めいれいけい} (imperative form) of the ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

Although it is usually the transitive verb that takes a "Noun + を" in front of it, there is an important exception to this general rule. Intransitive verbs such as 向く、[走]{はし}る (to run)、[飛]{と}ぶ (to fly)、[出]{で}る (to get out), etc. can take a "Noun + を" when it describes the place of an action or the direction of a movement. 上を向く = to look upward ...



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