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21

逃げたくなった is: 逃げる = "to flee", in its stem form (連用形) → 逃げ ~たい = the suffix that expresses wanting to do, conjugated to ~たく (again, the 連用形) なる = "to become", in past tense → なった So this means something to the effect of "it became the case that he wanted to get away". For the sentence as a whole, I would offer a translation like "he began to want to get ...


14

「[働]{はたら}きたくにゃい」 is just a cute way of saying 「働きたくない」. It makes you sound like a kitten speaking.


13

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


12

No, [持]{も}つ cannot mean 'to wait', your translation is incorrect. Are you confusing it with [待]{ま}つ? パーティーに何か[持]{も}って行きましょうか。 "Shall we go ahead and bring something along to the party?"


11

"Teach" in this case is simply "tell" -- i.e., "inform someone of something they did not know previously". As to why folks in Japan use 教える instead of 伝える or some other verb, that may have to be chalked up to cultural, historical, and linguistic differences. ADDENDUM: By way of example of "cultural, historical, and linguistic differences", it bears noting ...


10

You can use 降りる. User @Chocolate is also fond of 出る 高速を降りる 高速を出る You can use these in the same way to express your idea of getting off of one form of expressway onto another. 首都高を降りて高速(or whatever)に入る・乗る Just to address your original guesses: 出発する is to depart, as in the place of origin. 下車する is to get out of a car/vehicle. 残す is to leave ...


10

I think the most universal way of expressing trying is using て-form of a verb followed by みる. For example: 電話してみるよ。 I will try calling you. お好み焼きを食べてみたい。 I want to try eating okonomiyaki. In addition, what you can express in English as "try" as in "have you tried?" is sometimes asking about past experience and can be expressed in Japanese as ...


10

Only やる is acceptable in some common phrases: やった!I did it! ×した! やられた!You got me! ×された! やれ、やれ!Go for it! ×しろ、しろ! やられたらやり返せ。Eye for an eye. ×されたらし返せ。 やってくる come along ×してくる やっていく get along, make a living ×していく やっちまえ!Get him! ×しちまえ! やる is used/preferred for: 何時までやってますか?(≒営業する open; on business) ×何時までしてますか? 演奏会でピアノをやる(≒演奏する perform) ...


10

〜てほしい is used when you want someone else to do something. I've never heard it used in reference to one's own desires (and in fact, may be ungrammatical). Related: Wanting Someone To Do Something (てほしい Structure) When to use 欲しがる instead of 欲しい Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?


9

The ーし part comes from する, indeed. It is the infinitive form, or what some grammarians like Seiichi Makino call the "masu stem": the form of the verb that takes -ます. する → し → します なさい is the imperative form of なさる, which is a honorific word which means the same as する. Infinitives combine with なさい to form firm, but polite orders. For instance, telling ...


9

I think here あそびに means something like "for fun" or "for leisure". In other words, they came on a pleasure trip, not for business or studying. What may be confusing is that it's natural to express this in Japanese directly when you'd express it only indirectly in English. Phrases like "came to visit" or "went to see" generally imply that it's for pleasure ...


8

Your confusion appears to come from the fact that there are two different 「だと」's. 1) When 「だと」 is used as the colloquial form of 「であると」, only nouns can directly precede it. Here, the na-adjective stems are naturally included as well. 「[花子]{はなこ}さんはとてもきれいだと[聞]{き}いている。」 = "I hear that Hanako is very pretty." ...


8

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


8

If a Japanese sentence contains a noun with high animacy or (linguistic) sympathy and a noun with less animacy or sympathy, the former takes the position of the subject. If there are you and the menu, you have to compose a sentence with you being the subject. If you say これで笑わせた, people only think you made someone laugh using the menu or someone made ...


8

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


8

This な, expressing an order, can be thought of as coming from a shortened version of なさい: 見なさい! → 見な! It attaches to the 連用形 of a verb, which is the same form 〜ます attaches to: 見 + ます  = 見ます 見 + な   = 見な 動き + ます = 動きます 動き + な  = 動きな It is easily confused with another な, which expresses an order not to do something; this other な attaches ...


8

You can use ガーデニングする (do gardening) for gardening. ガーデニング is a generally used term in today's Japan. So you can say... 趣味の一つとして、ガーデニングを始めた。 (As one of my hobby, I started gardening.) ガーデニング用品を買う。 (Buy tools for gardening.) 子供と一緒にガーデニングした。(I gardened with my children.) If you don't prefer this word, you can use [園芸]{えんげい}する (do gardening) alternatively. ...


8

Yes, ~うる (or ~える) can be thought of as a potential form. It's an auxiliary that expresses "can", and it attaches to the continuative form (連用形) of a verb. That's the same form of the verb you use before the polite auxiliary ~ます, so we get forms like these:   ある   →  ありうる   考える  →  考えうる   する   →  しうる In kanji, this verb would be written 得る, but in ...


8

逃げたくなった is the past tense form of 逃げ+たく+なる which consists of the verb 逃げる + the auxiliary verb たい + the verb なる. 逃げ >> 連用形(continuative form) of 逃げる >> run away たく >> 連用形(continuative form) of the volitional auxiliary verb たい >> want to なった >> the past tense form of なる(成る) >> become So it's like "became to want to run away", i.e. "started to feel like ...


7

In this context, きれる does not mean "to be cut", but rather attaches to the 連用形 (-i form) of a verb and means "to be able to completely [verb]". cf. the EDICT entry for 切れる: (suf,v1) (16) to be able to do completely When used in this sense, きれる is typically written in kana rather than as 切れる. So, we have 死にきれる (that's the verb 死ぬ, not the noun 死 + ...


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


7

Let me see if I can address these one at a time: 私は成田空港で [ 外国でも使える 携帯電話 ] を 借りてきたから、問題がないよ。 The relative clause 外国でも使える is modifying 携帯電話, so 外国でも使える携帯電話 means "a cell phone that can be used even overseas". 私は成田空港で外国でも使える携帯電話を借りてきたから、問題がないよ。 借りてきた means "borrowed", but since money was probably exchanged for the phone, I think "rented" is ...


7

I don't know what you mean by "-せる" form. -せる can appear at the end of the verb in at least two ways. As the potential form of a verb, which ends in -す. 帰す -> 帰せる As the causative form of a verb. 帰る -> 帰らせる Here, -せる is the potential form of the verb 倒す, so 倒す "to throw over, to knock down" 倒せる "to be able to throw over / knock down" 倒せない "not ...


7

It's Kansai dialect. I don't think it's official 敬語 recognized by 文科省. It's 尊敬語. 食べはる ≒ 食べられる, 召し上がる [来]{き}はる ≒ [来]{こ}られる, いらっしゃる 先生が来はった。≒ 先生が来られた, 先生がいらっしゃった I think ~~はる sounds less polite/formal than the standard 尊敬語. I think it comes from なさる (--> なはる --> はる ?)


7

Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite: それはリンゴだ  That is an apple それはリンゴです That is an apple (polite) But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives: あかい    is red あかいです  is red (polite) When it's a politeness marker, です doesn't inflect for tense: あかいです    is red (polite) あかかったです  was red (polite) The ...


7

くれ is the imperative form of くれる and the お is the honorific. ~~しておくれ = "Do ~~ for me / to me." This is used much more often in fiction than in real life. "Now, I'll give you this money: (Please) sell me the turtle."


7

I would say ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っている。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っています。(polite form) (not *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思う。/ *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思います。) to say "Bob thinks that prices are high", ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようだ。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようです。(polite form) to say "It seems that Bob thinks prices are high", and ボブさんによれば、物価が高いそうだ。(casual form) ...


6

There is a class of verbs, sometimes called suru-verbs, which are formed from a noun + the verb する, e.g. [料理]{りょうり}する = to cook So, 料理しますか。 Do you cook? 料理していますか。 Are you cooking? To learn how to form simple sentences like this, you need to know how to form questions and how to look up word in a dictionary: The second word you looked up ...


6

しなさい is a verb conjugation that turns the verb する into a command (imperative form). There are a number of imperative forms, but this one in particular gives the nuance of "talking down" or giving advice that you feel is helpful to the listener (but keep in mind, it carries the connotation that you know better than the listener). This is generally how a ...


6

Although it is usually the transitive verb that takes a "Noun + を" in front of it, there is an important exception to this general rule. Intransitive verbs such as 向く、[走]{はし}る (to run)、[飛]{と}ぶ (to fly)、[出]{で}る (to get out), etc. can take a "Noun + を" when it describes the place of an action or the direction of a movement. 上を向く = to look upward ...



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