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20

逃げたくなった is: 逃げる = "to flee", in its stem form (連用形) → 逃げ ~たい = the suffix that expresses wanting to do, conjugated to ~たく (again, the 連用形) なる = "to become", in past tense → なった So this means something to the effect of "it became the case that he wanted to get away". For the sentence as a whole, I would offer a translation like "he began to want to get ...


12

Before considering modern Japanese, I think that it is easier to understand this by first understanding classical. Classical Japanese has three major regular verb classes: quadrigrade (四段), monograde (一段), and bigrade (二段). Both monograde and bigrade may further be sub-divided into upper (上) and lower (下). There are also four irregular classes: k-irregular, ...


11

"Teach" in this case is simply "tell" -- i.e., "inform someone of something they did not know previously". As to why folks in Japan use 教える instead of 伝える or some other verb, that may have to be chalked up to cultural, historical, and linguistic differences. ADDENDUM: By way of example of "cultural, historical, and linguistic differences", it bears noting ...


11

〜てほしい is used when you want someone else to do something. I've never heard it used in reference to one's own desires (and in fact, may be ungrammatical). Related: Wanting Someone To Do Something (てほしい Structure) When to use 欲しがる instead of 欲しい Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?


11

「[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + (small っ) + こ」 = "performing the same action to/for/with one another" 「見せ」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「見せる = "to show"」. 「こ」 is a suffix that sort of functions as a nominalizer while giving the verb a meaning of doing the same thing among two or more persons as a competition, game or just fun. See こ[接尾]1 in : ...


9

You can use ガーデニングする (do gardening) for gardening. ガーデニング is a generally used term in today's Japan. So you can say... 趣味の一つとして、ガーデニングを始めた。 (As one of my hobby, I started gardening.) ガーデニング用品を買う。 (Buy tools for gardening.) 子供と一緒にガーデニングした。(I gardened with my children.) If you don't prefer this word, you can use [園芸]{えんげい}する (do gardening) alternatively. ...


9

You can use 降りる. User @Chocolate is also fond of 出る 高速を降りる 高速を出る You can use these in the same way to express your idea of getting off of one form of expressway onto another. 首都高を降りて高速(or whatever)に入る・乗る Just to address your original guesses: 出発する is to depart, as in the place of origin. 下車する is to get out of a car/vehicle. 残す is to leave ...


8

In this context, きれる does not mean "to be cut", but rather attaches to the 連用形 (-i form) of a verb and means "to be able to completely [verb]". cf. the EDICT entry for 切れる: (suf,v1) (16) to be able to do completely When used in this sense, きれる is typically written in kana rather than as 切れる. So, we have 死にきれる (that's the verb 死ぬ, not the noun 死 + ...


8

This question is trickier than it may appear to many J-learners and here is why. OP's first sentence means what s/he stated in English NOT only because 「て」 was used but also because the two activities happen to be those that could not take place simultaneously -- "brush teeth" and "eat". 「て」 can certainly signify the sequence of activities, but it can also ...


8

Yes, ~うる (or ~える) can be thought of as a potential form. It's an auxiliary that expresses "can", and it attaches to the continuative form (連用形) of a verb. That's the same form of the verb you use before the polite auxiliary ~ます, so we get forms like these:   ある   →  ありうる   考える  →  考えうる   する   →  しうる In kanji, this verb would be written 得る, but in ...


8

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. Sometimes, it is possible to use both「知る」and「分かる」. For example, "Do you know this Kanji?" can be translated to both「この漢字、知ってる?」and「この漢字、分かる?」 ...


7

I am afraid that your understanding of the third form is incorrect. 「捕らえられていた」 is the equivalent of the English "pluperfect passive voice". There is no "progressive" expressed in this. In English, it would be "had been caught (and had stayed in captivity since)".


7

If a Japanese sentence contains a noun with high animacy or (linguistic) sympathy and a noun with less animacy or sympathy, the former takes the position of the subject. If there are you and the menu, you have to compose a sentence with you being the subject. If you say これで笑わせた, people only think you made someone laugh using the menu or someone made ...


7

The て-form of a verb followed by いた (past tense of いる: to be) indicates the past progressive tense (e.g., 食べていた "I was eating", 飲んでいた "I was drinking"). In spoken Japanese though, the い of いた is usually silent, so it sounds like tabe[teta] and non[deta].


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


7

This たって is the same as たって (≒even if, even though) in 雨が降ったって出掛けるよ. The difference is that なく (te-form of ない) is inserted between the main verb (=言う) and たって. (And of course 言う is in its nai-form before ない) 言わなくたって分かるよ。 Even if you don't say it, (I/he) can understand. 言ったって分からないよ。 Even if you say it, (I/he) can't understand. The literal ...


6

やめときます would be the て-form of 止{や}める with the auxiliary verb おく, which has a number of meanings but in this case probably indicates that the speaker will go ahead and stop doing something in anticipation of a certain result, or that they are admitting that a situation is a certain way and will leave it as it is. 止{や}めて+おきます=止{や}めときます It would literally ...


6

It comes from the Classical honorific verb 「[賜]{たま}ふ」, which means "to give (from one in a higher position to one in the lower)". The Modern counterpart is 「お[与]{あた}えになる」 or 「[下]{くだ}さる」. The 「ふ」 has become 「う」 over time as you probably know. This verb can be used as an honorific subsidiary verb following another verb. The Modern counterparts are ...


6

Your translation is close, but a little off. The pattern 〜わけ{では・じゃ}ない means "Does not (necessarily) mean that 〜". The ある here is for existence, not for possession. So it would translate as 独立系の映画館はシネコンと違っていて、チケットが安いのですが、どこにでもあるわけではありません。 → Independent theatres differ from big multiplexes; the tickets are cheap(er), but they are not (necessarily) ...


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


6

Tsuyoshi Ito has already answered this question, but I'd like to add one detail: I think I see 目指すは〜 a lot more than other verbs followed by は. Although I can't find it in any dictionaries, from personal experience I think it might be common enough to be considered something like a set phrase, or possibly a holdover from when this grammar was more common. ...


6

Here is a linguistic supplement to @naruto's answer: This 「たって」 connects to the 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) of words. This is not immediately clear because of the euphonic changes that take place. This is what happens when 「たって」 connects to 「言う」:   //iwu//の連用形+//tatte// ⇒   { inflect }   //iwi//+//tatte// ⇒   { //i// in //wi// devoices; ...


6

Short answer: nominalization. In this case, it's not really a quirk of the Japanese language, at least you're doing pretty much the same in English as well. In English, we don't say *My hobby is play the guitar. *As for my hobby, play the guitar. The pattern A is B needs two things (either a noun, or mentioning a word or phrase, as in swim is ...


6

「[出]{で}る」 is indeed always an intransitive verb. 「[出]{だ}す」 is the transitive verb. So, why is it possible to say 「レストランを出る」、「[日本]{にほん}を出る」, etc? It is an "exception" to the general rule that says one can only attach 「を」 to transitive verbs. The 「を」 attached to transitive verbs functions differently than the 「を」 in 「レストランを出る」. The former is the famous ...


6

I'll assume that you aren't literally asking how to conjugate 「思う」 to past tense (which simply put, is just 「思った」), but instead that you are actually asking "how to use it in past tense". What makes this complicated is that 「〜と思う」 doesn't mean "to think ~" (as in, the state of holding some belief). Instead, it means something more like "to have the ...


6

In this specific case, at the phrase level, the difference between 保存したファイル and 保存されたファイル is usually subtle; both means "saved file". However, this phrase is followed by 添付しました whose subject is you, so I feel it flows much better when you use the same subject. Your first example perfectly makes sense, but may be unnecessarily complicated as compared to the ...


5

なりな is an imperative form, with 〜な derived from 〜なさい. From 大辞泉: 2 《補助動詞「なさる」の命令形「なさい」の省略形》動詞・動詞型助動詞の連用形に付く。命令の意を表す。「早く行き―」「好きなようにやり―」 Be careful not to mix this up with なるな, which can itself have multiple meanings.



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