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12

Before considering modern Japanese, I think that it is easier to understand this by first understanding classical. Classical Japanese has three major regular verb classes: quadrigrade (四段), monograde (一段), and bigrade (二段). Both monograde and bigrade may further be sub-divided into upper (上) and lower (下). There are also four irregular classes: k-irregular, ...


11

"Teach" in this case is simply "tell" -- i.e., "inform someone of something they did not know previously". As to why folks in Japan use 教える instead of 伝える or some other verb, that may have to be chalked up to cultural, historical, and linguistic differences. ADDENDUM: By way of example of "cultural, historical, and linguistic differences", it bears noting ...


11

「[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + (small っ) + こ」 = "performing the same action to/for/with one another" 「見せ」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「見せる = "to show"」. 「こ」 is a suffix that sort of functions as a nominalizer while giving the verb a meaning of doing the same thing among two or more persons as a competition, game or just fun. See こ[接尾]1 in : ...


9

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. Sometimes, it is possible to use both「知る」and「分かる」. For example, "Do you know this Kanji?" can be translated to both「この漢字、知ってる?」and「この漢字、分かる?」 ...


8

You'll understand if you just look at them romanized: Vowel-stem verbs (一段動詞)  食べない tabe-nai  食べます tabe-masu  食べる  tabe-ru  食べれば tabe-reba  食べよう tabe-yoo The stem is tabe-, which ends with /e/, a vowel. Consonant-stem verbs (五段動詞)  泳がない oyog-anai  泳ぎます oyog-imasu  泳ぐ   oyog-u  泳げば  oyog-eba  泳ごう  oyog-oo The stem is oyog-, which ends with /g/, a ...


8

This question is trickier than it may appear to many J-learners and here is why. OP's first sentence means what s/he stated in English NOT only because 「て」 was used but also because the two activities happen to be those that could not take place simultaneously -- "brush teeth" and "eat". 「て」 can certainly signify the sequence of activities, but it can also ...


7

I am afraid that your understanding of the third form is incorrect. 「捕らえられていた」 is the equivalent of the English "pluperfect passive voice". There is no "progressive" expressed in this. In English, it would be "had been caught (and had stayed in captivity since)".


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


7

The て-form of a verb followed by いた (past tense of いる: to be) indicates the past progressive tense (e.g., 食べていた "I was eating", 飲んでいた "I was drinking"). In spoken Japanese though, the い of いた is usually silent, so it sounds like tabe[teta] and non[deta].


7

This たって is the same as たって (≒even if, even though) in 雨が降ったって出掛けるよ. The difference is that なく (te-form of ない) is inserted between the main verb (=言う) and たって. (And of course 言う is in its nai-form before ない) 言わなくたって分かるよ。 Even if you don't say it, (I/he) can understand. 言ったって分からないよ。 Even if you say it, (I/he) can't understand. The literal ...


7

From Samuel Martin's Reference Grammar of Japanese (1975), p.191: The intransitive verb 向く【むく】 means 'faces, fronts on' or 'is suitable for, suits' with N に; but with N を it is a quasi-intransitive verb of motion meaning 'turn (one's face) toward)' [...] He gives these examples: 横【よこ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the side 前【まえ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the ...


6

Off the top of my head I would summarize the differences as follows. 信じる is to believe a single fact or statement (or, by extension, believe that something exists or is true) 信用する is to have faith in a source of information 信頼する is to trust a person (or institution) So, for example 田中さんを信じる。 I believe what Mr. Tanaka said. 田中さんを信用できる。 I can ...


6

せん(=せぬ) is the classical version of しない, 'do not'. せ = the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb す, 'do' (す = classical version of する) ん = the negative auxiliary ぬ << derived from the classical negative ず 殺しはせん(連用形「殺し」 + particle は(= here it can be like 'at least') + verb せ + negative ん) is the classical way of saying 殺しはしない, 'I'm not killing / I'm ...


6

It comes from the Classical honorific verb 「[賜]{たま}ふ」, which means "to give (from one in a higher position to one in the lower)". The Modern counterpart is 「お[与]{あた}えになる」 or 「[下]{くだ}さる」. The 「ふ」 has become 「う」 over time as you probably know. This verb can be used as an honorific subsidiary verb following another verb. The Modern counterparts are ...


6

Here is a linguistic supplement to @naruto's answer: This 「たって」 connects to the 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) of words. This is not immediately clear because of the euphonic changes that take place. This is what happens when 「たって」 connects to 「言う」:   //iwu//の連用形+//tatte// ⇒   { inflect }   //iwi//+//tatte// ⇒   { //i// in //wi// devoices; ...


6

Short answer: nominalization. In this case, it's not really a quirk of the Japanese language, at least you're doing pretty much the same in English as well. In English, we don't say *My hobby is play the guitar. *As for my hobby, play the guitar. The pattern A is B needs two things (either a noun, or mentioning a word or phrase, as in swim is ...


6

「[出]{で}る」 is indeed always an intransitive verb. 「[出]{だ}す」 is the transitive verb. So, why is it possible to say 「レストランを出る」、「[日本]{にほん}を出る」, etc? It is an "exception" to the general rule that says one can only attach 「を」 to transitive verbs. The 「を」 attached to transitive verbs functions differently than the 「を」 in 「レストランを出る」. The former is the famous ...


6

I'll assume that you aren't literally asking how to conjugate 「思う」 to past tense (which simply put, is just 「思った」), but instead that you are actually asking "how to use it in past tense". What makes this complicated is that 「〜と思う」 doesn't mean "to think ~" (as in, the state of holding some belief). Instead, it means something more like "to have the ...


6

In this specific case, at the phrase level, the difference between 保存したファイル and 保存されたファイル is usually subtle; both means "saved file". However, this phrase is followed by 添付しました whose subject is you, so I feel it flows much better when you use the same subject. Your first example perfectly makes sense, but may be unnecessarily complicated as compared to the ...


5

なりな is an imperative form, with 〜な derived from 〜なさい. From 大辞泉: 2 《補助動詞「なさる」の命令形「なさい」の省略形》動詞・動詞型助動詞の連用形に付く。命令の意を表す。「早く行き―」「好きなようにやり―」 Be careful not to mix this up with なるな, which can itself have multiple meanings.


5

When learning Japanese as a foreign language, "consonant-stem" (respectively "vowel-stem") verbs are called thus, because their stem ends in a consonant (resp. vowel), where "stem" refers to the part not changing during inflection (conjugation). mi-ru, mi-tai, mi-masu, mi-nai, mi-r-eba, mi-y-ou... kik-u, kik-i-tai, kik-i-masu, kik-a-nai, kik-eba, ...


5

年をとる means to grow old, to age. Next time try a dictionary first.


5

食べる eat 食べない not eat 食べはしない not eat (but do drink) 食べもしない not even eat 食べすらしない not even so much as eat and so on わ as a sentence-ender is used differently in different dialects. With no context here (壊すわ) it's hard to say exactly, but in general, in the standard dialect, it's used for feminine emphasis. [edit] per the comment from blutorange, the ...


5

When someone says 「希望する大学」, it implicitly means 「(進学を)希望する大学」, hence, "wish to attend" (although, it should be "hope to attend" to be more accurate). When you say 「大学を希望します」, it is translated to "I hope for a college," which sounds a bit strange. A better way to say it would be 「大学進学を希望します」. I don't think 希望する is very formal, but a more informal way of ...


5

搭載されてます機能 If this was in a formal business email, I would say it's grammatical but overly casual. As you well know, the ています-to-てます-conversion is very common in casual and colloquial Japanese, but that's not something you can use in a business email. They should have wrote in one of the followings ways: 搭載されています機能 搭載されております機能 (using humble おる) ...


5

Not-so-young native speaker here. I personally have never used 「verb + たまえ」 myself or had another person say something to me using that structure. The only places that I have actually heard it used have been: Fiction (films, dramas, plays, novels, etc.) and Religious sermons In fiction, adult male speakers sometimes use 「verb + たまえ」 as a somewhat ...


5

[彼]{かれ}は[短刀]{たんとう}を[柄]{つか}も[通]{とお}れと[男]{おとこ}の[胸]{むね}に[突]{つ}き[刺]{さ}した。 in meaning, is equal to: 彼は短刀を『柄も通れ!』と男の胸に突き刺した。 「通れ」 is the [命令形]{めいれいけい} (imperative form) the of the verb 「通る」. 「柄も通れ」 is what the guy thought to himself as he stabbed the other guy. He wanted to stab deep. = "Let even the hilt go through!" This is no fixed expression, but ...


4

宿題ができました。 You would say this to mean 'I just finished/completed my homework'. Your homework is complete now. 宿題をしました。 This means 'I did my homework'. Your homework may or may not be complete. For example, if you say しました。 as a reply to 宿題はしましたか? , you normally mean you have completed it. But you could also say 宿題をしました。まだ最後までできていませんが。(I did my ...



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