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12

[閉]{し}まる is intransitive, [閉]{し}める, [閉]{と}ざす, [閉]{た}てる are transitive, and [閉]{と}じる can be transitive and intransitive. [閉]{し}まる -- intransitive. Something (physically) closes. 「ドアが閉まる」 a door closes 「門が閉まる」a gate closes 「店が閉まる」 a shop closes / shuts down [閉]{し}める -- transitive. To (physically) close something. 「ドアを閉める」 close a door 「門を閉める」 close a gate ...


11

Can you say "日本語する"? I suppose you can use it idiomatically or somewhat playfully (perhaps akin to something like "I'm Japanese-ing it up"), but it's not a real verb that is used. If the answer is no, how can "日本語できる" be grammatically correct? Without realizing it, you are actually saying "日本語が分かることができます。". 日本語できる is really just dropping the が ...


9

年をとる means to grow old, to age. Next time try a dictionary first.


9

When used on their own, 始める and 出す are always transitive. However, when used as an auxiliary verb, 始める and 出す will always be used instead of their intransitive counterparts. The main verb, the verb that this helping verb attaches to, is the real determiner of transitivity. Transitivity has nothing to do with the auxiliary verb. For example, because 降る is ...


8

You'll understand if you just look at them romanized: Vowel-stem verbs (一段動詞)  食べない tabe-nai  食べます tabe-masu  食べる  tabe-ru  食べれば tabe-reba  食べよう tabe-yoo The stem is tabe-, which ends with /e/, a vowel. Consonant-stem verbs (五段動詞)  泳がない oyog-anai  泳ぎます oyog-imasu  泳ぐ   oyog-u  泳げば  oyog-eba  泳ごう  oyog-oo The stem is oyog-, which ends with /g/, a ...


8

All of desu, deshita, and datta appear normally before ka. But da is an exception. In main clauses (like your examples), da is deleted before ka: desu + ka →   desu ka deshita + ka → deshita ka da + ka →   ka datta + ka →  datta ka In subordinate clauses (like [dare da ka] shiranai), da sometimes appears before ka. ...


8

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


8

Yes it's a sentence-ending particle which is usually used in monologues. One article says the main function of this っと is to casually convince/confirm something to the speaker themselves. Perhaps it's like saying 'okay' to yourself. これで良しっと。 今日も1日お疲れさまでしたっと。 (before going to bed, to oneself) Occasionally it's used when there's an actual ...


8

Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that? Yes, that is precisely the idea! Now, a grammar explanation... 「なる」 here means "to reach a certain (new) state" and you will keep encountering this usage of the word as long as you study Japanese. That is a promise from a native speaker. 「[連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なる」= "to ...


8

This 願わくば is a fixed expression fossilized long ago, and you just have to memorize it without thinking about it too much. It's a literary expression that corresponds to "Hopefully, ..." used as a sentence adverb. As pointed out in the comment, this is related to ク語法, a grammatical feature which had already dropped out of use more than 1000 years ago. It was ...


8

If you are listing multiple actions in a set (eg. of things you like) then you would use verb+たり〜verb+たりするのが好き. 旅行したり、映画を見たりするのが好きです。 I like to do things like watching movies and travelling. Your initial sentence reads like the two actions are connected. As you like to first travel somewhere and then watch a movie there.


8

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


7

せん(=せぬ) is the classical version of しない, 'do not'. せ = the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb す, 'do' (す = classical version of する) ん = the negative auxiliary ぬ << derived from the classical negative ず 殺しはせん(連用形「殺し」 + particle は(= here it can be like 'at least') + verb せ + negative ん) is the classical way of saying 殺しはしない, 'I'm not killing / I'm ...


7

Off the top of my head I would summarize the differences as follows. 信じる is to believe a single fact or statement (or, by extension, believe that something exists or is true) 信用する is to have faith in a source of information 信頼する is to trust a person (or institution) So, for example 田中さんを信じる。 I believe what Mr. Tanaka said. 田中さんを信用できる。 I can ...


7

来なんだ = 来なかった. The negative past. You often hear this form in 時代劇 and from old people in fiction (think [波平]{なみへい} in Sazaesan, Dumbledore in Harry Potter...) デジタル大辞泉の解説 なんだ[助動] [助動][なんだら|なんで(なんだり)|なんだ|なんだ(なんだる)|なんだれ|○]動詞型活用語の未然形に付く。過去の打消しの意を表す。なかった。 ...


7

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying ...


7

You could argue that the てしまう* doesn't technically add any new information to the sentence in the form of a subject or object, but that's not to say that it's not useful. *This is the same thing as てしまいます but in plain form -- don't worry about it for now, it's not relevant to this discussion Firstly, to clear up your question, the てしまいました is actually ...


7

You're on the right track. A dictionary specifically defines this usage of よう as: 6 実現の可能性の意を表す。「あの男がそんな悪いことをしようはずがない」 It's usually used in the form of masu-form + よう + が + ある or masu-form + よう + が + ない, which mean "there's a way of ~ing" or "there's no way of ~ing", respectively. So, yes, 答えの出しようのない疑問 literally means "question for which there is no ...


7

立ちて死すべし The 立ち is the continuative form (連用形) of the archaic verb 立つ. The て is the conjunctive particle (接続助詞), i.e. 立ちて is the te-form of 立つ in Classical Japanese. 死す is a literary, bookish way of saying 死ぬ. As in @broccoliforest's comment below 死す is the archaic form of 死する. So in modern Japanese I think it would be like 「立って死ぬべき(だ)」 or 「立って死ぬべし」, ...


7

As you can see here, 吹く can be transitive and intransitive. 風が吹く(自動詞) 笛を吹く(他動詞) So 風が強く吹いている。 can translate to "(lit.) The wind is blowing hard." i.e. "It's blowing hard."


6

合える is the Potential conjugation of 合う。 Attaching ~ 合う (あう)to the end of a verb stem means to do the action with each other or to do the action mutually with someone else. (See more examples on the source page) Attaching 〜合う and 〜合える in this way is pretty common. To determine whether it would be fitting in a certain situation, a good rule of thumb is ...


6

Am I using は and が right? ×私は山田さんが描きました。 ○私は山田さんを描きました。I drew Yamada-san. ○私は山田さんの[絵]{え}を描きました。I drew a picture of Yamada-san. You have to mark the direct object (the thing the verb acts upon) with を.Like in 私はパンを食べます (I eat bread), for example, where you mark the thing you eat with を. Here you attach を to the thing you drew. Am I using the right ...


6

In meaning, 「[信]{しん}じ[歩]{ある}く」= 「信じ、歩く」= 「信じて歩く」 ≒ 「信じて、(そして)[生]{い}きていく」 In other words, 「歩く」 does not necessarily mean "to walk" here. It is used metaphorically to mean "to live one's life (from here on)". 「いいの」=「いいのですか」=「いいのでしょうか」 It is in a question form and in this case, the speaker is asking himself a question. 「Verb + ば ...


6

Japanese verbs can be divided into three groups (godan verbs, ichidan verbs and irregular verbs). Nevertheless, the -ます form is not the best to tell them apart. Godan verbs (Group I) ends in く、ぐ、う、ぶ、る、ぬ、つ、む、す. Examples are: 行{い}く、泳{およ}ぐ、買{か}う、遊{あそ}ぶ、上{あ}がる、死{し}ぬ、待{ま}つ、読{よ}む、話{はな}す. There is some overlapping with verb ending in る.I mean that you have to ...


6

First, Group III is the easiest to devide because 来{く}る and する are the only verbs that belong to it. These verbs have each irregular conjugation as you probably know. Then, if the verb ends with another than ''る'', it belongs to Group I. For example, you can tell which group 行{い}く belongs to, because it ends with ''く'' which is another than ''る''. Yes, ...


6

Almost certainly it's from すねる + ぐれる. Because there is no in-between て, すねぐれる sounds like it's an established compound verb (such as 飛び起きる, こぼれ落ちる, 遊び呆ける), but I haven't seen this combination before. From what I could google, it probably is a rare dialect word used in the eastern part of Japan. This page lists すねぐれる as an 茨城弁 term. すねぐれる 【動】拗ねる、ひねくれる ...


6

The former option is close, but you should use transitive 見つける instead of 見つかる. メガネを見つけた - (I) found my glasses The reason you should use 見つける instead of 見つかる is because the former is transitive (takes a direct object, with を) and the latter is intransitive (is done on its own). In other words, 見つける is the process of someone finding something, whereas ...


6

です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...


5

[彼]{かれ}は[短刀]{たんとう}を[柄]{つか}も[通]{とお}れと[男]{おとこ}の[胸]{むね}に[突]{つ}き[刺]{さ}した。 in meaning, is equal to: 彼は短刀を『柄も通れ!』と男の胸に突き刺した。 「通れ」 is the [命令形]{めいれいけい} (imperative form) the of the verb 「通る」. 「柄も通れ」 is what the guy thought to himself as he stabbed the other guy. He wanted to stab deep. = "Let even the hilt go through!" This is no fixed expression, but ...


5

宿題ができました。 You would say this to mean 'I just finished/completed my homework'. Your homework is complete now. 宿題をしました。 This means 'I did my homework'. Your homework may or may not be complete. For example, if you say しました。 as a reply to 宿題はしましたか? , you normally mean you have completed it. But you could also say 宿題をしました。まだ最後までできていませんが。(I did my ...



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