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11

「[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + (small っ) + こ」 = "performing the same action to/for/with one another" 「見せ」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「見せる = "to show"」. 「こ」 is a suffix that sort of functions as a nominalizer while giving the verb a meaning of doing the same thing among two or more persons as a competition, game or just fun. See こ[接尾]1 in : ...


11

Can you say "日本語する"? I suppose you can use it idiomatically or somewhat playfully (perhaps akin to something like "I'm Japanese-ing it up"), but it's not a real verb that is used. If the answer is no, how can "日本語できる" be grammatically correct? Without realizing it, you are actually saying "日本語が分かることができます。". 日本語できる is really just dropping the が ...


9

年をとる means to grow old, to age. Next time try a dictionary first.


9

When used on their own, 始める and 出す are always transitive. However, when used as an auxiliary verb, 始める and 出す will always be used instead of their intransitive counterparts. The main verb, the verb that this helping verb attaches to, is the real determiner of transitivity. Transitivity has nothing to do with the auxiliary verb. For example, because 降る is ...


8

You'll understand if you just look at them romanized: Vowel-stem verbs (一段動詞)  食べない tabe-nai  食べます tabe-masu  食べる  tabe-ru  食べれば tabe-reba  食べよう tabe-yoo The stem is tabe-, which ends with /e/, a vowel. Consonant-stem verbs (五段動詞)  泳がない oyog-anai  泳ぎます oyog-imasu  泳ぐ   oyog-u  泳げば  oyog-eba  泳ごう  oyog-oo The stem is oyog-, which ends with /g/, a ...


8

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


8

Yes it's a sentence-ending particle which is usually used in monologues. One article says the main function of this っと is to casually convince/confirm something to the speaker themselves. Perhaps it's like saying 'okay' to yourself. これで良しっと。 今日も1日お疲れさまでしたっと。 (before going to bed, to oneself) Occasionally it's used when there's an actual ...


8

Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that? Yes, that is precisely the idea! Now, a grammar explanation... 「なる」 here means "to reach a certain (new) state" and you will keep encountering this usage of the word as long as you study Japanese. That is a promise from a native speaker. 「[連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なる」= "to ...


8

This 願わくば is a fixed expression fossilized long ago, and you just have to memorize it without thinking about it too much. It's a literary expression that corresponds to "Hopefully, ..." used as a sentence adverb. As pointed out in the comment, this is related to ク語法, a grammatical feature which had already dropped out of use more than 1000 years ago. It was ...


7

せん(=せぬ) is the classical version of しない, 'do not'. せ = the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb す, 'do' (す = classical version of する) ん = the negative auxiliary ぬ << derived from the classical negative ず 殺しはせん(連用形「殺し」 + particle は(= here it can be like 'at least') + verb せ + negative ん) is the classical way of saying 殺しはしない, 'I'm not killing / I'm ...


7

Off the top of my head I would summarize the differences as follows. 信じる is to believe a single fact or statement (or, by extension, believe that something exists or is true) 信用する is to have faith in a source of information 信頼する is to trust a person (or institution) So, for example 田中さんを信じる。 I believe what Mr. Tanaka said. 田中さんを信用できる。 I can ...


7

From Samuel Martin's Reference Grammar of Japanese (1975), p.191: The intransitive verb 向く【むく】 means 'faces, fronts on' or 'is suitable for, suits' with N に; but with N を it is a quasi-intransitive verb of motion meaning 'turn (one's face) toward)' [...] He gives these examples: 横【よこ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the side 前【まえ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the ...


7

All of desu, deshita, and datta appear normally before ka. But da is an exception. In main clauses (like your examples), da is deleted before ka: desu + ka →   desu ka deshita + ka → deshita ka da + ka →   ka datta + ka →  datta ka In subordinate clauses (like [dare da ka] shiranai), da sometimes appears before ka. ...


7

来なんだ = 来なかった. The negative past. You often hear this form in 時代劇 and from old people in fiction (think [波平]{なみへい} in Sazaesan, Dumbledore in Harry Potter...) デジタル大辞泉の解説 なんだ[助動] [助動][なんだら|なんで(なんだり)|なんだ|なんだ(なんだる)|なんだれ|○]動詞型活用語の未然形に付く。過去の打消しの意を表す。なかった。 ...


7

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying ...


7

You could argue that the てしまう* doesn't technically add any new information to the sentence in the form of a subject or object, but that's not to say that it's not useful. *This is the same thing as てしまいます but in plain form -- don't worry about it for now, it's not relevant to this discussion Firstly, to clear up your question, the てしまいました is actually ...


7

You're on the right track. A dictionary specifically defines this usage of よう as: 6 実現の可能性の意を表す。「あの男がそんな悪いことをしようはずがない」 It's usually used in the form of masu-form + よう + が + ある or masu-form + よう + が + ない, which mean "there's a way of ~ing" or "there's no way of ~ing", respectively. So, yes, 答えの出しようのない疑問 literally means "question for which there is no ...


7

立ちて死すべし The 立ち is the continuative form (連用形) of the archaic verb 立つ. The て is the conjunctive particle (接続助詞), i.e. 立ちて is the te-form of 立つ in Classical Japanese. 死す is a literary, bookish way of saying 死ぬ. As in @broccoliforest's comment below 死す is the archaic form of 死する. So in modern Japanese I think it would be like 「立って死ぬべき(だ)」 or 「立って死ぬべし」, ...


7

If you are listing multiple actions in a set (eg. of things you like) then you would use verb+たり〜verb+たりするのが好き. 旅行したり、映画を見たりするのが好きです。 I like to do things like watching movies and travelling. Your initial sentence reads like the two actions are connected. As you like to first travel somewhere and then watch a movie there.


6

Not-so-young native speaker here. I personally have never used 「verb + たまえ」 myself or had another person say something to me using that structure. The only places that I have actually heard it used have been: Fiction (films, dramas, plays, novels, etc.) and Religious sermons In fiction, adult male speakers sometimes use 「verb + たまえ」 as a somewhat ...


6

合える is the Potential conjugation of 合う。 Attaching ~ 合う (あう)to the end of a verb stem means to do the action with each other or to do the action mutually with someone else. (See more examples on the source page) Attaching 〜合う and 〜合える in this way is pretty common. To determine whether it would be fitting in a certain situation, a good rule of thumb is ...


6

Am I using は and が right? ×私は山田さんが描きました。 ○私は山田さんを描きました。I drew Yamada-san. ○私は山田さんの[絵]{え}を描きました。I drew a picture of Yamada-san. You have to mark the direct object (the thing the verb acts upon) with を.Like in 私はパンを食べます (I eat bread), for example, where you mark the thing you eat with を. Here you attach を to the thing you drew. Am I using the right ...


6

In meaning, 「[信]{しん}じ[歩]{ある}く」= 「信じ、歩く」= 「信じて歩く」 ≒ 「信じて、(そして)[生]{い}きていく」 In other words, 「歩く」 does not necessarily mean "to walk" here. It is used metaphorically to mean "to live one's life (from here on)". 「いいの」=「いいのですか」=「いいのでしょうか」 It is in a question form and in this case, the speaker is asking himself a question. 「Verb + ば ...


6

Japanese verbs can be divided into three groups (godan verbs, ichidan verbs and irregular verbs). Nevertheless, the -ます form is not the best to tell them apart. Godan verbs (Group I) ends in く、ぐ、う、ぶ、る、ぬ、つ、む、す. Examples are: 行{い}く、泳{およ}ぐ、買{か}う、遊{あそ}ぶ、上{あ}がる、死{し}ぬ、待{ま}つ、読{よ}む、話{はな}す. There is some overlapping with verb ending in る.I mean that you have to ...


5

宿題ができました。 You would say this to mean 'I just finished/completed my homework'. Your homework is complete now. 宿題をしました。 This means 'I did my homework'. Your homework may or may not be complete. For example, if you say しました。 as a reply to 宿題はしましたか? , you normally mean you have completed it. But you could also say 宿題をしました。まだ最後までできていませんが。(I did my ...


5

When learning Japanese as a foreign language, "consonant-stem" (respectively "vowel-stem") verbs are called thus, because their stem ends in a consonant (resp. vowel), where "stem" refers to the part not changing during inflection (conjugation). mi-ru, mi-tai, mi-masu, mi-nai, mi-r-eba, mi-y-ou... kik-u, kik-i-tai, kik-i-masu, kik-a-nai, kik-eba, ...


5

[彼]{かれ}は[短刀]{たんとう}を[柄]{つか}も[通]{とお}れと[男]{おとこ}の[胸]{むね}に[突]{つ}き[刺]{さ}した。 in meaning, is equal to: 彼は短刀を『柄も通れ!』と男の胸に突き刺した。 「通れ」 is the [命令形]{めいれいけい} (imperative form) the of the verb 「通る」. 「柄も通れ」 is what the guy thought to himself as he stabbed the other guy. He wanted to stab deep. = "Let even the hilt go through!" This is no fixed expression, but ...


5

I'm going to try to do two things in this answer. First, I'm going to try to address the tangle of terms and theories that have got you confused. (So this answer will unfortunately be rather long!) Second, I'll try to address the specific question of 誘う. Feel free to skip any section that doesn't look immediately helpful :-) What do '-u verb' and ...


5

This may be too obvious to OP, but we can use られる and say like this: その本{ほん}を読んで{よんで}みられると良い{よい}でしょう。 食べて{たべて}みられることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 正直{しょうじき}に言って{いって}みられてはどうですか。 But I recommend that you try to apply honorifics to the main verb (these are more common, and perhaps politer, too): その本{ほん}をお読み{およみ}になってみると良い{よい}でしょう。 召し{めし}上が{あが}ってみることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 ...


5

I think your understanding is sufficient. To answer your second question....嫌う can also imply willingness to avoid. So for example, ゴブリンは闇を嫌わずに行きつづけた。 Literally it translates to: Goblin, not disliking the darkness, kept going. Maybe it actually likes it dark, or maybe it was just brave for the moment. Nevetheless, It had no willingness to avoid ...



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