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I would say ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っている。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っています。(polite form) (not *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思う。/ *ボブさんは、物価が高いと思います。) to say "Bob thinks that prices are high", ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようだ。(casual form) ボブさんは、物価が高いと思っているようです。(polite form) to say "It seems that Bob thinks prices are high", and ボブさんによれば、物価が高いそうだ。(casual form) ...


The difference is very subtle, but there is a difference. With と言います, it sounds as if the myth is actually true or people somehow believe it. With と言われています, it sounds as if it is an actual myth. There is no rule that says you must use と言われています when indicating a myth. I've never played the game, but you can probably infer that the maiden actually believes ...


I think #2 is a little more natural especially in everyday conversation. However, #1 is still often found in articles or such. off-topic: If you want to use ~によれば, it's 「…によれば今の…では株価が高い。」, 「・・・株価が高いそうだ」 or 「・・・株価が高いとのこと(だ)」 Bobさんによれば株価が高いと思っている(ようだ) means "Bob said he/she (not Bob himself) thinks stock price is high for the current economy".


Yes, it can. I remember my teacher at school (here in Japan) sometimes using 頑張りましょう when talking about activities that he would not directly take part in. He was however peripherally involved, like being the one setting the test he was referring to with his 頑張りましょう。 I'd say that there needs to be at least a link between the person using this form and the ...

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