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8

You'll understand if you just look at them romanized: Vowel-stem verbs (一段動詞)  食べない tabe-nai  食べます tabe-masu  食べる  tabe-ru  食べれば tabe-reba  食べよう tabe-yoo The stem is tabe-, which ends with /e/, a vowel. Consonant-stem verbs (五段動詞)  泳がない oyog-anai  泳ぎます oyog-imasu  泳ぐ   oyog-u  泳げば  oyog-eba  泳ごう  oyog-oo The stem is oyog-, which ends with /g/, a ...


7

From Samuel Martin's Reference Grammar of Japanese (1975), p.191: The intransitive verb 向く【むく】 means 'faces, fronts on' or 'is suitable for, suits' with N に; but with N を it is a quasi-intransitive verb of motion meaning 'turn (one's face) toward)' [...] He gives these examples: 横【よこ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the side 前【まえ】を向いて【むいて】 turn to the ...


6

せん(=せぬ) is the classical version of しない, 'do not'. せ = the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb す, 'do' (す = classical version of する) ん = the negative auxiliary ぬ << derived from the classical negative ず 殺しはせん(連用形「殺し」 + particle は(= here it can be like 'at least') + verb せ + negative ん) is the classical way of saying 殺しはしない, 'I'm not killing / I'm ...


6

Off the top of my head I would summarize the differences as follows. 信じる is to believe a single fact or statement (or, by extension, believe that something exists or is true) 信用する is to have faith in a source of information 信頼する is to trust a person (or institution) So, for example 田中さんを信じる。 I believe what Mr. Tanaka said. 田中さんを信用できる。 I can ...


5

[彼]{かれ}は[短刀]{たんとう}を[柄]{つか}も[通]{とお}れと[男]{おとこ}の[胸]{むね}に[突]{つ}き[刺]{さ}した。 in meaning, is equal to: 彼は短刀を『柄も通れ!』と男の胸に突き刺した。 「通れ」 is the [命令形]{めいれいけい} (imperative form) the of the verb 「通る」. 「柄も通れ」 is what the guy thought to himself as he stabbed the other guy. He wanted to stab deep. = "Let even the hilt go through!" This is no fixed expression, but ...


5

When learning Japanese as a foreign language, "consonant-stem" (respectively "vowel-stem") verbs are called thus, because their stem ends in a consonant (resp. vowel), where "stem" refers to the part not changing during inflection (conjugation). mi-ru, mi-tai, mi-masu, mi-nai, mi-r-eba, mi-y-ou... kik-u, kik-i-tai, kik-i-masu, kik-a-nai, kik-eba, ...


3

Most textbooks note that using か to mark two noun alternatives, the last one can be omitted. You are probably talking about something like this: ステーキか、すしにします。 / ステーキか、すしを食べます。 (I'll have either steak or sushi.) However, you cannot omit the second か in a sentence like below, even though か marks two noun alternatives: ...


3

It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


3

Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)


2

You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


1

このビールを飲んでみました。 I think it means 'I tried drinking this beer' (You drank it). 'I tried to drink this beer' would be 「このビールを飲もうとしました」(You may or may not have drunk it). If I understand correctly, 'try doing' 「~してみる」 'try to do' 「~しようとする」 'will try to do' 「~しようと思う」「~したいと思う」(Literally 'I think I will ~' 'I think I want to ~') I will try to talk to ...


1

The two examples have different reasons. The prefix 大{おお} always attaches to a noun, e.g. see 大辞林 おお 【大】 一 [...] 二 (接頭) 名詞に付く。 [...] 程度のはなはだしいことを表す。「—あわて」「—にぎわい」「—騒ぎ」 [...] In the second example お守りします you correctly identified that お is honorific. The only thing that's missing is the observation that the honorific お ...


1

「大笑いする」に似た表現に「大いに(or 大きく)笑う」(not 大笑う)がありますが、後者は文字数が多い分「大いに」をあえて強調する印象になります。 また「お守りする」は「守る」に「お~する」という敬語表現を加えたもので、「守りします」は誤りです。 As expression similar to 大笑いする one has 大いに (or 大きく) 笑う (not 大笑う), but the latter being rather wordy, it would seem to be overly emphasizing 大いに. Also, 「お守りする」 comes from applying the keigo construction 「お~する」 to 「守る」. 守りします would ...



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