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10

Only やる is acceptable in some common phrases: やった!I did it! ×した! やられた!You got me! ×された! やれ、やれ!Go for it! ×しろ、しろ! やられたらやり返せ。Eye for an eye. ×されたらし返せ。 やってくる come along ×してくる やっていく get along, make a living ×していく やっちまえ!Get him! ×しちまえ! やる is used/preferred for: 何時までやってますか?(≒営業する open; on business) ×何時までしてますか? 演奏会でピアノをやる(≒演奏する perform) ...


10

I think the most universal way of expressing trying is using て-form of a verb followed by みる. For example: 電話してみるよ。 I will try calling you. お好み焼きを食べてみたい。 I want to try eating okonomiyaki. In addition, what you can express in English as "try" as in "have you tried?" is sometimes asking about past experience and can be expressed in Japanese as ...


8

If a Japanese sentence contains a noun with high animacy or (linguistic) sympathy and a noun with less animacy or sympathy, the former takes the position of the subject. If there are you and the menu, you have to compose a sentence with you being the subject. If you say これで笑わせた, people only think you made someone laugh using the menu or someone made ...


8

Your confusion appears to come from the fact that there are two different 「だと」's. 1) When 「だと」 is used as the colloquial form of 「であると」, only nouns can directly precede it. Here, the na-adjective stems are naturally included as well. 「[花子]{はなこ}さんはとてもきれいだと[聞]{き}いている。」 = "I hear that Hanako is very pretty." ...


7

Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite: それはリンゴだ  That is an apple それはリンゴです That is an apple (polite) But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives: あかい    is red あかいです  is red (polite) When it's a politeness marker, です doesn't inflect for tense: あかいです    is red (polite) あかかったです  was red (polite) The ...


7

It's Kansai dialect. I don't think it's official 敬語 recognized by 文科省. It's 尊敬語. 食べはる ≒ 食べられる, 召し上がる [来]{き}はる ≒ [来]{こ}られる, いらっしゃる 先生が来はった。≒ 先生が来られた, 先生がいらっしゃった I think ~~はる sounds less polite/formal than the standard 尊敬語. I think it comes from なさる (--> なはる --> はる ?)


7

I don't know what you mean by "-せる" form. -せる can appear at the end of the verb in at least two ways. As the potential form of a verb, which ends in -す. 帰す -> 帰せる As the causative form of a verb. 帰る -> 帰らせる Here, -せる is the potential form of the verb 倒す, so 倒す "to throw over, to knock down" 倒せる "to be able to throw over / knock down" 倒せない "not ...


6

The main differences are in the formality/informality of these words, not really in their meanings. They all mean "to roam about (aimlessly)" and I will mention the small difference in nuance later on. 「ぶらつく」 and 「うろつく」 are more informal than 「さまよう」. The existence of the onomatopoeias 「ぶらぶら」 and 「うろうろ」 should tell you something about the colloquiality of ...


6

笑わせた(笑わせる) is the causative form of 笑う(笑った), so これを笑わせた。 means "(I) made it laugh." 僕を笑わせた。 means "(Something) made me laugh", so logically speaking this statement would be correct in your situation. これで笑わせた。 would mean "(I) made (someone) laugh with this." (I think the で works as an instrumental/具格 case here) (僕に)これで笑わせた。 ...


5

It's a different way of saying the causative-passive 行かせられる, so it means that the speaker was made to go to the hospital. Note in an earlier version of this answer I confidently asserted that this is a more colloquial example. A comment was posted to the contrary and, after researching it more in depth, I was surprised to find I was indeed wrong in that ...


5

Although it is usually the transitive verb that takes a "Noun + を" in front of it, there is an important exception to this general rule. Intransitive verbs such as 向く、[走]{はし}る (to run)、[飛]{と}ぶ (to fly)、[出]{で}る (to get out), etc. can take a "Noun + を" when it describes the place of an action or the direction of a movement. 上を向く = to look upward ...


5

Japanese grammar works in a different way when it comes to forming polite forms of verbs and i-adjectives. For verbs, you add ~ます to the verb and then you form all other verbs forms from combined polite verb: つかれる -> つかれます plain -> polite つかれます -> つかれました polite -> polite past つかれます -> つかれません polite -> polite negative It is different for ...


4

Your translation is correct. However, this が isn't the "but" one. It's the "softener" one. I can't think of a way to translate it (if there even is one), but it's often used to make one's own desires/actions seem less direct and a little more humble. Ex. 聞きたいことがあるんですが... → There's something I'd like to ask you... The difference between ...


4

To form the polite past tense, you can't just add です to the non-polite past tense つかれた. You need to make the polite present tense つかれます into the past tense (i.e. ます -> ました) つかれました. That the ending ます inflects like any other verb, e.g. (present) はなす -> (past) はなした, is no accident. ます can be thought of as an auxiliary verb.


4

These are similar words with subtle differences. 学習 has a bit more formal sound than 習う, and the difference in their meanings derive from that. For example, 学習 tends to refer to "at desk" formal studies you do at schools and institutions. Mathmatics, science, English, that sort of things. In contrast, 習う often refers to lessons and extra-school activities ...


4

Yes, it makes sense to talk about the transitivity of verbal noun plus する constructions. I would simply link you to the introduction of The Light Verb Construction in Japanese: The Role of the Verbal Noun, but I suppose it's better if I repeat some of the examples here. All of the following examples are taken from page 8: First, intransitive verbal noun + ...


3

Generally words ending in /ru/ will be reinterpreted as the consonant verb stem /r-/ plus /u/, while verbs not ending in /ru/ will have /r-u/ added. For some reason, even verbs which could be interpreted as vowel stem verbs are generally interpreted as consonant stem. We can make other generalizations too, like pointing out that long vowels are generally ...


3

I would definitely need to add the furigana. [逃]{のが}す: Unintentional - "to fail to catch". You tried to catch something but did not succeed. "Not catching" was not intentional though that was the result. [逃]{に}がす: Intentional - "to set one free". You meant to let him go. [逃]{に}げさせる: Intentional - "to let or allow one to escape" You meant to do so.


2

出来る is the potential form (〜えます form, if you will) of する. As such, in common usage the best practice is to use the native potential form for all non-する verbs and できる for the rest. Proper construction of the potential form is as follows: Type I (〜う) verbs: Change -u to -eる (e.g. 行く => 行ける). This ending can also be further inflected (e.g. 行けます、行けない, etc.) ...


2

Short answer: 得{え}る or うる is more literary. ことができる is slightly more formal than られる and both fit for everyday use. ことができる and られる can only be used to describe humans' ability so they don't fit well with non-volitional verbs (無意志動詞). える or うる can also be used to describe possibility. E.g. ×あられる ○あり得る Both ことができる and られる can be used when you are not ...


2

My sense could be wrong, and I'm sure I'll be told if it is so, but I don't think those words (with one exception) are useful for what you want as in "to try": 味わう = literally to taste the flavor of something as in while you are cooking 嘗める = to lick something -- also a term for when someone is trying to mess with you. 試す = to test something 味見 = to taste ...


1

(This is just a supplementary note to compliment the answer above) 向く is an interesting case (see below) but generally when an intransitive verb takes を the English equivalent often contains an additional word: You fly across the sky.-> 空を飛ぶ You run along a road-> 道を走る You stroll around a park -> 公園を散歩する You go out of a house -> 家を出る You feel sad about ...


1

This is just a thought that is too long for a comment but based on the following 水割り seems to be the natural order: To dilute with water = 水で割る ー> 水割り To take a 1/10th, or 10% = 一割 (same order); 15%= 一割5分 (seems logical) If we look at other words containing 割り then the order they come is consistent with what you would expect in long form, eg: ...


1

-i form of a verb, among other things, can be used to form nouns that are derived from this verb. For example to discount (v) -> discount (n): 割り{わり}引く{びく} -> 割引{わりびき} to rest/to have take a day off (v) -> rest/holiday (n): 休{やす}む -> 休{やす}み to apply (v) -> application (n): 申{もう}し込{こ}む -> 申{もう}し込{こ}み So I believe this is not the case of a verb form being ...


1

There are specific verbs which don't take the potential form (offhand I remember する, which changes to できる, and 分かる, which you can circumvent by using 理解できる. Naturally, できる can't be put in the potential form either, due to recursion.). Other than that, I don't recall any verbs that are prohibited from using specified forms. Transitivity affects particle ...


1

知る is basically used for the new knowledge or idea or thoughts...something new. When you 知る something, it means that you didn't know it before. So, 知った implies that you just heard or seen something new for you, not necessarily means that you understood it. Whereas 分かる is not used only for the new things but also something you've already heard or seen. When ...


1

To understand the difference, you need to know where 分かる comes from. Pun intended. わかる is the intransitive form of 分ける, meaning "to separate". If I 分ける something, I divide it out, but if I わかる something, the dividing would be done in me. Another way of translating it would be "parsing out an idea from all the rest". In the case of the scenario about knowing ...



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