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39

As stated in some of the other answers, the fundamental difference is that 分{わ}かる is "to understand", and 知{し}る is "to know", which helps differentiate the two as concepts. However, I think that doesn't fully answer your question. Many years ago, early in my Japanese learning, when a Japanese friend asked me what I was going to do tomorrow, I said ...


32

(This question had to show up eventually… :) For my answer, I'll be borrowing most example sentences and categorizations from pages 176-179 of 初級【しょきゅう】を教【おし】える人【ひと】のための日本語【にほんご】文法【ぶんぽう】ハンドブック and from this PDF. Cases where only の is allowed When the following verb deals with one of the senses: 聞く【きく】, 聞こえる【きこえる】, 見る【みる】, 見える【みえる】, 感じる【かんじる】, and so on. ...


18

The -ou/-you form does have a negative counterpart, but it's considered rather literary, and in any case never used in a cohortative meaning ("Let's X"). That form is the なかろう form, e.g.: 食べなかろう, which means "[He/I/etc.] probably wouldn't eat." and is equivalent to the more colloquial form "食べないだろう". I think the most common simple way to express the meaning ...


18

The key to understanding this difference in aspect (not tense) lies in knowing what kind of verb we're dealing with. For verbs that describe actions (食【た】べる, 走【はし】る, etc) and events (降【ふ】る, 吹【ふ】く, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of an action. For verbs that describe changes in state (死【し】ぬ, 割【わ】れる, 溶【と】ける, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of a state. ...


15

I think the confusion here arises from the fact that English can use the "-ing" form of a verb in two different ways: using a verb as a noun (gerund), or expressing a continuous action (progressive tense). In plain language, adding の to a verb in Japanese transforms it into a noun and makes it suitable to be followed by は, が, or various other particles that ...


15

First, concurring with Axioplase: だく is for tangible things, いだく is for abstract things. (Daijisen has a usage note under 抱える that deals with this distinction.) With regards to your second question, yes, だく can have the connotation of "sleep with" (second sense in the Daijisen definition for 抱く). It's a somewhat "nicer" way to say "sleep with" in the sense ...


14

They both mean "to fix"/"to repair"/"to correct", but 治す is used in the sense of "to heal or cure" ("to fix a disease"). "直す" is used for fixing, not healing. EDIT: As per Tsuyoshi Ito's correction (confirmed with a bit of googling), I've removed a misleading bit about the object of these verbs.


14

Well, first, I think that うだく is archaic, as I read it: 〔上代語「むだく」の転で、「だく」の古形。平安鎌倉時代の漢文訓読にだけ見える語〕 Then, だく seems to be use for concrete situations, when you really use your hands. いだく seems to be a more literary reading, or used in abstract situations, like 「理想を―・く」「不安を―・く」. This is exactly your sentence, isn't it? Sources: on-line dictionaries ...


13

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


13

Here are the only two exceptions I can think of where you absolutely can't insert "を": If the construction wasn't based on をする but とする like さっぱりする→◯さっぱりとする ☓さっぱりをする If the construction is "merged" single character する verbs like 動じる/動ずる、案じる/案ずる、命じる/命ずる、失する、課する、罰する etc. However, it's uncommon to just add を in in many cases - so the result may be awkward if ...


13

As Axioplase has indicated, the verb 死ぬ was originally a n-stem irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). There was only one other such verb, namely 去ぬ. It survives in modern standard Japanese in derived forms such as 古 (いにしえ, from the stem of 去ぬ + the stem of the past tense auxiliary き + the particle へ). It is also thought that the noun 西 is derived from 去ぬ. (The main ...


13

What exactly is なり? It is a conjugable suffix (助動詞). It attaches to the attributive (連体形), a substantive, or an uninflected adjective. It expresses designation (指定) or predication (断定). It is basically equivalent to である or だ. You may consider it a copula. As a conjugable suffix, it has multiple forms: nar-a, nar-i / ni, nar-i, nar-u, nar-e, nar-e. ...


13

I'll base my answer around this Japanese thesaurus entry which discusses the difference between 思う and 考える. 思う is more subjective or emotional - for example: worries, hopes, affection, supposition/imagination (as in 'It wasn't as big as I had imagined (thought) it would be') etc. 考える is for more objective and logical thought. At the bottom of the ...


12

According to Tae Kim, there is a negative volitional form, but it is archaic and formal, so you're better off using the modern expressions given by the other answers. However, it does show up every now and then (トキ in 北斗の拳 seems to like using it), and it's a pretty simple conjugation, so it's worth knowing. To form the negative volitional, you add まい to ...


12

I imagine most grammar texts break Japanese tenses into past and non-past. So the plain form can be used to describe something you will do (once) in the future as well as something you do on a regular basis or something that tends to happen. Context tells you which is meant: 明日【あした】は映画【えいが】を見【み】る。 Tomorrow I will watch a movie. ...


12

Yes, there is a general word: 身に着ける So, you can say: 帽子を身に着ける 服を身に着ける ズボンを身に着ける However, in daily conversation it is more common to say 着る or 履く. Also, 身につける can mean something different like 知識を身につける. Or, after rereading your question, it looks like you don't want to specify what you are wearing. In that case, the other answer is ...


11

Very simply : 食べることができる I am technically able to eat. I have a mouth, a stomach, and so on. When you ask "can you do this for me" and your witty friend replies "yes, I can" but doesn't do it, that's this meaning of potentiality that he chose to understand. You'd use this form to say "I cannot time travel" or "I cannot fly". You cannot do anything about ...


11

Basically, を follows a noun (eg. "車") or a nominal group (eg. "私が運転してる車"), not a proposition. (This) と follows a proposition, not a noun or nominal group. 行こうを思う is thus not grammatical. You'd want 行くことを思う for a grammatically correct sentence. It would mean that you think of the concept of going. It is different from thinking of you going, which would be ...


11

I personally think both existing answers should be sufficient for this question, but since they cannot seem to gather consensus, allow me to give it my own try: The short answer is that both いる and ある forms can be used in a scientific (biological) context. Simple as that. A quick poll of available colleagues gave out that some preferred いる, some preferred ...


11

Axel Svahn has written about this construction in detail, including summaries of other scholars' viewpoints: Imperative -ta in colloquial Japanese: A descriptive analysis (Bachelors' thesis, 2007) The perfective imperative in Japanese (Masters' thesis, 2009) That second one in particular is well worth reading if you are interested in this subject. It ...


11

I think the key to understanding the differences is to understand the concept of [空間]{くうかん} in Japanese. Basically, if by performing the "open" action, you connect two 空間 together, create a new 空間 or make a 空間 visible, then both ひらく and あける can be used. This can be seen in the following phrases: 窓をあける/ひらく (by opening a window, you connect two 空間 ...


11

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, !you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


10

する is the most general, neither too polite nor too formal. やる is more informal and could tend to lean toward rudeness. Note that やる cannot replace する in sino-Japanese compounds. For example, 電話する could not change to 電話やる. なさる is keigo (尊敬語), used for someone "higher" than yourself. いたす is humble keigo (謙譲語), referring humbly to yourself or others in ...


10

Actually, there were verbs ending in some of the syllables you listed, but they have changed to different forms in modern Japanese. ず Most verbs ending in ず were サ変 verbs; they became regularised as 〜じる verbs, e.g. 感じる、生じる、命じる etc. Note that these examples are all derived from Chinese words which originally had nasal endings. Sometimes these also show up ...


10

This construct was common in classical Japanese, but now it is archaic or poetic. In classical Japanese, the attributive form of conjugating words can be directly followed by particles which attach to nouns (without inserting の). 目指すは would become 目指すのは in modern Japanese, 吹きやまぬは would become 吹きやまぬのは or 吹きやまないのは, and so on.


10

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


10

Jikan wa deru koto desu If it is written in Japanese, 「時間は出る事です」. We don't say it.  One, is this correct? No. If you mean It's time to leave, 「もう出る時間です」 should be fine. Two, when translating infinitives from English to Japanese is the proper conversion: to [verb] -> [verb] koto? Not always. In addition to 名詞的用法, there are 形容詞的用法 and 副詞的用法. ...


10

I think you can try: リンクを開{ひら}く リンクを開{あ}ける リンクをたどる (follow the link) リンクをクリックする (click the link) サイトを訪れる (visit a site) Of course don't forget to conjugate them into the required requesting/commanding forms.


10

I think the most universal way of expressing trying is using て-form of a verb followed by みる. For example: 電話してみるよ。 I will try calling you. お好み焼きを食べてみたい。 I want to try eating okonomiyaki. In addition, what you can express in English as "try" as in "have you tried?" is sometimes asking about past experience and can be expressed in Japanese as ...


10

Only やる is acceptable in some common phrases: やった!I did it! ×した! やられた!You got me! ×された! やれ、やれ!Go for it! ×しろ、しろ! やられたらやり返せ。Eye for an eye. ×されたらし返せ。 やってくる come along ×してくる やっていく get along, make a living ×していく やっちまえ!Get him! ×しちまえ! やる is used/preferred for: 何時までやってますか?(≒営業する open; on business) ×何時までしてますか? 演奏会でピアノをやる(≒演奏する perform) ...



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