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59

As stated in some of the other answers, the fundamental difference is that 分{わ}かる is "to understand", and 知{し}る is "to know", which helps differentiate the two as concepts. However, I think that doesn't fully answer your question. Many years ago, early in my Japanese learning, when a Japanese friend asked me what I was going to do tomorrow, I said 「知{し}らない」,...


55

(This question had to show up eventually… :) For my answer, I'll be borrowing most example sentences and categorizations from pages 176-179 of 初級【しょきゅう】を教【おし】える人【ひと】のための日本語【にほんご】文法【ぶんぽう】ハンドブック and from this PDF. Cases where only の is allowed When the following verb deals with one of the senses: 聞く【きく】, 聞こえる【きこえる】, 見る【みる】, 見える【みえる】, 感じる【かんじる】, and so on. ...


27

The key to understanding this difference in aspect (not tense) lies in knowing what kind of verb we're dealing with. For verbs that describe actions (食【た】べる, 走【はし】る, etc) and events (降【ふ】る, 吹【ふ】く, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of an action. For verbs that describe changes in state (死【し】ぬ, 割【わ】れる, 溶【と】ける, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of a state. ...


26

Short answer: It's a politeness marker. Long answer: You can't think of Japanese in terms of English. In the English sentence I want a dog, it's true that want is a verb. But in the Japanese sentence 犬{いぬ}がほしいです, the word ほしい is an adjective, not a verb. Even though you can express the same basic idea in both languages, the grammar to do so is quite ...


22

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. But, I think that answer is a little bit confused because it fails to understand that "to know" is a stative verb but 「知る」is not. A stative verb ...


21

The -ou/-you form does have a negative counterpart, but it's considered rather literary, and in any case never used in a cohortative meaning ("Let's X"). That form is the なかろう form, e.g.: 食べなかろう, which means "[He/I/etc.] probably wouldn't eat." and is equivalent to the more colloquial form "食べないだろう". I think the most common simple way to express the meaning ...


21

逃げたくなった is: 逃げる = "to flee", in its stem form (連用形) → 逃げ ~たい = the suffix that expresses wanting to do, conjugated to ~たく (again, the 連用形) なる = "to become", in past tense → なった So this means something to the effect of "it became the case that he wanted to get away". For the sentence as a whole, I would offer a translation like "he began to want to get ...


20

Very simply : 食べることができる I am technically able to eat. I have a mouth, a stomach, and so on. When you ask "can you do this for me" and your witty friend replies "yes, I can" but doesn't do it, that's this meaning of potentiality that he chose to understand. You'd use this form to say "I cannot time travel" or "I cannot fly". You cannot do anything about ...


19

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


19

I think the confusion here arises from the fact that English can use the "-ing" form of a verb in two different ways: using a verb as a noun (gerund), or expressing a continuous action (progressive tense). In plain language, adding の to a verb in Japanese transforms it into a noun and makes it suitable to be followed by は, が, or various other particles that ...


18

They both mean "to fix"/"to repair"/"to correct", but 治す is used in the sense of "to heal or cure" ("to fix a disease"). "直す" is used for fixing, not healing. EDIT: As per Tsuyoshi Ito's correction (confirmed with a bit of googling), I've removed a misleading bit about the object of these verbs.


18

I'll base my answer around this Japanese thesaurus entry which discusses the difference between 思う and 考える. 思う is more subjective or emotional - for example: worries, hopes, affection, supposition/imagination (as in 'It wasn't as big as I had imagined (thought) it would be') etc. 考える is for more objective and logical thought. At the bottom of the ...


17

Here are the only two exceptions I can think of where you absolutely can't insert "を": If the construction wasn't based on をする but とする like さっぱりする→◯さっぱりとする ☓さっぱりをする If the construction is "merged" single character する verbs like 動じる/動ずる、案じる/案ずる、命じる/命ずる、失する、課する、罰する etc. However, it's uncommon to just add を in in many cases - so the result may be awkward if ...


17

First, concurring with Axioplase: だく is for tangible things, いだく is for abstract things. (Daijisen has a usage note under 抱える that deals with this distinction.) With regards to your second question, yes, だく can have the connotation of "sleep with" (second sense in the Daijisen definition for 抱く). It's a somewhat "nicer" way to say "sleep with" in the sense ...


17

I think the key to understanding the differences is to understand the concept of [空間]{くうかん} in Japanese. Basically, if by performing the "open" action, you connect two 空間 together, create a new 空間 or make a 空間 visible, then both ひらく and あける can be used. This can be seen in the following phrases: 窓をあける/ひらく (by opening a window, you connect two 空間 together)...


17

This is called a relative clause, and they are pretty interesting in Japanese. Rules from English do not transfer very well at all. た-form in relative clauses There are two ways to interpret the た-form of a verb in a relative clause: as past as non-past, if: the verb has a 'result state', there is no overt actor, explaining the state change does not ...


16

I imagine most grammar texts break Japanese tenses into past and non-past. So the plain form can be used to describe something you will do (once) in the future as well as something you do on a regular basis or something that tends to happen. Context tells you which is meant: 明日【あした】は映画【えいが】を見【み】る。 Tomorrow I will watch a movie. 毎週【まいしゅう】金曜日【きんようび】...


16

This construct was common in classical Japanese, but now it is archaic or poetic. In classical Japanese, the attributive form of conjugating words can be directly followed by particles which attach to nouns (without inserting の). 目指すは would become 目指すのは in modern Japanese, 吹きやまぬは would become 吹きやまぬのは or 吹きやまないのは, and so on.


16

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


15

An English translation of the link provided by Tsuyoshi Ito: Preface: It is common knowledge that the verb 知る is an exceptional verb amongst verbs that take the ~ている form. ~ている is appended to the subject-changing verb and expresses the state after the change; its corresponding negated form is expressed as ~ていない. But contrary to expectations, the negated ...


15

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery


14

According to Tae Kim, there is a negative volitional form, but it is archaic and formal, so you're better off using the modern expressions given by the other answers. However, it does show up every now and then (トキ in 北斗の拳 seems to like using it), and it's a pretty simple conjugation, so it's worth knowing. To form the negative volitional, you add まい to ...


14

Well, first, I think that うだく is archaic, as I read it: 〔上代語「むだく」の転で、「だく」の古形。平安鎌倉時代の漢文訓読にだけ見える語〕 Then, だく seems to be use for concrete situations, when you really use your hands. いだく seems to be a more literary reading, or used in abstract situations, like 「理想を―・く」「不安を―・く」. This is exactly your sentence, isn't it? Sources: on-line dictionaries ...


14

What exactly is なり? It is a conjugable suffix (助動詞). It attaches to the attributive (連体形), a substantive, or an uninflected adjective. It expresses designation (指定) or predication (断定). It is basically equivalent to である or だ. You may consider it a copula. As a conjugable suffix, it has multiple forms: nar-a, nar-i / ni, nar-i, nar-u, nar-e, nar-e. ...


13

I don't think you can differentiate them without looking at the context. ハンバーガー が・を 食べられる → I can eat hamburgers ハンバーガーを食べられてしまった! → Someone ate my hamburger!! With the passive form, you'll usually see the doer/"culprit", indicated by ~に: 父にハンバーガーを食べられることが多い → My hamburgers are often eaten by my father ("My father often eats my ...


13

As Axioplase has indicated, the verb 死ぬ was originally a n-stem irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). There was only one other such verb, namely 去ぬ. It survives in modern standard Japanese in derived forms such as 古 (いにしえ, from the stem of 去ぬ + the stem of the past tense auxiliary き + the particle へ). It is also thought that the noun 西 is derived from 去ぬ. (The main ...


13

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...



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