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です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...
Another beginner answering here. ます is a (polite) verb ending. The verb to eat (食べる) for example can be conjugated to 食べます, which can be used in polite speech. です is a state of being, also to be used in polite conversations and can be roughly translated as a conjugated "to be". Example: 私はドイツ人です (I'm German)
Basically, the casual form is ～だからだ and its polite form is ～だからです. e.g. ネコだからだ(よ)。 人間だからです。 坊やだからさ。 The から is a 接続助詞(conjunctive particle), definition #1 in デジタル大辞泉: 2⃣ [接助]活用語の終止形に付く。 １ 理由・原因を表す。「もう遅いから帰ろう」 (attached to the predicative form of 活用語. 1. indicates a reason or cause.) The から needs to be attached to the predicative form such ...
To break it down, はじめまして is the て form of はじめます, and はじめます is the polite form of はじめる. はじめまして is a fixed expression. You'll see ～～まして in some fixed expressions such as: あけましておめでとうございます。-- Happy new year. どういたしまして。-- You are welcome. as well as in polite/formal speech or writing such as: ご来店くださいまして、誠にありがとうございます。 -- Thank you for ...
They are correct and same meaning but different in grammar 赤なの=赤(a noun) + な(a 連体形 of verbal auxiliary だ)+ の(a postpositional particle which is used in nominalization) 赤だと=赤(a noun) + だ(a verbal auxiliary だ)+ と(a postpositional particle) For example, 彼が先生だと分かった and 彼が先生なのが分かった.
ない behaves like an i-adjective. You may end up with some strange sentences (雪子さんとはデートできないだけです, but you can turn water into wine) but grammatically you can do what you are suggesting.
も is roughly "even", "also". Attached to a verb's て-form, it has a meaning of "even (if)". 言われても thus literally means "even if told". A translation for you sentence might look like this: "I'm going to worry/be in trouble even if you suddenly tell me that!" (even if I'm being told that)
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