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It comes from the Classical honorific verb 「[賜]{たま}ふ」, which means "to give (from one in a higher position to one in the lower)". The Modern counterpart is 「お[与]{あた}えになる」 or 「[下]{くだ}さる」. The 「ふ」 has become 「う」 over time as you probably know. This verb can be used as an honorific subsidiary verb following another verb. The Modern counterparts are ...


なりな is an imperative form, with 〜な derived from 〜なさい. From 大辞泉: 2 《補助動詞「なさる」の命令形「なさい」の省略形》動詞・動詞型助動詞の連用形に付く。命令の意を表す。「早く行き―」「好きなようにやり―」 Be careful not to mix this up with なるな, which can itself have multiple meanings.


It is a description of the period of time when this happened. "During the time I was in elementary school". 小学校に居る modifies 時分. During which period did this happen? During the period when I was in school.


「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (= attributive form) of the Clasical auxiliary verb 「き」, which expresses "past tense". As in your examples, it is sometimes used in the Modern context when the author wants it to sound "literary" and/or "dramatic". Today, it is used almost exclusively in fiction. 「[背負]{せお}いし[者]{もの}」=「背負った者」 「かつて[来]{き}たりし者」=「かつて来た者」 ...


It comes from the verb 給【たま】う via ウ音便. Other examples: 問【と】う → 問うた, しまう → しもうた, 言【い】う → 言【ゆ】うた. This is a feature of medieval Japanese and persists in western dialects of modern Japanese; in standard Japanese it is only found in fossilised forms.


"if one does not 'verb'" can be expressed as : verb + ない form + ば form = verb + なければ It is similar to the ば form conditional for い adjectives: 高い(い adj) + ば form = 高ければ In your particular example : 異ならなければ

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