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1

積極的 being translated to "optimistically" would be limited to taking on a task that seems doomed from the outset. The actual meaning is more along the line of positively, actively and such an effort may be viewed as optimistic when the odds are against you.


4

1) ぶっちゃけ is used among close friends or family in a very casual setting. I would not use this in a typical setting and especially not in a business situation. ぶっちゃけ originally came from 打{ぶ}ち明{あ}ける→ぶっちゃける which means to expose or "kiss and tell" a scandalous or juicy story. Since then, it came to mean frankly, or bluntly, or 'to get to the point of the ...


0

"なんと" originates from "何と", and '何' means 'what'. "どう" is about 'how'. So it would be better to consider if it is about what or how, although they can be used interchangeably. If it is about how, "なんと" may/can not be used depending on the verbs to use with. If it is about saying/writing/reading, such as in the case of this question, they would be ...


5

For educational purposes, I am taking the liberty of adding 「か」 at the end of the sentences in question. In informal speech, the question marker is indeed often dropped, but in this case, the sentences are clearly not informal or colloquial enough to drop it. 1)「せんせいの しつもんに なんと こたえましたか。」 2)「せんせいの しつもんに どう こたえましたか。」 1) can only mean one thing -- ...


5

The top few pages of Google search result already contain lots of fruitful answers, only if you can read them: 「…代」と「…料」はどう使い分けますか? (Japanese) 中上級を教える人のための日本語文法ハンドブック (Japanese) JeckGroup (Vietnamese) The following is basically a summary of them in English, plus what little I know. ~金: A general term for money in specific situations, not necessarily in ...


8

Very different, in short. 「良い」 just means "good". It does not say in what way something is good. 「こだわり」 is a noun meaning, in my own words, "being very selective, paying much attention to details, etc." . There is a sense of exclusiveness and/or aesthetics associated with the word. It is often used in advertising.


0

When a speaker says でしょう, he or she puts more weights on the guess or asking. When a speaker says ね, he or she expects an agreement from the listener. It is slightly more assertive (or forceful as you say) than でしょう. If you want to add the politeness, you can rephrase it by saying 疲れましたね。. However, でしょうね is more assertive than the two above, and the ...


0

So.... you are talking about demonstrative pronouns, correct? This = これ Ex: This is my book. これ(This) は ( I intentionally say nothing, however, it is a particle ), 私 ( my ) の ( also a particle ) 本 ( book ) です ( polite way of saying だ ( meaning, used for decisive endings )) これは私の本です。 That = あれ Ex, That is my book. You can just swap with "これ" ---> ...


1

So let me explain something. As you might know, historically speaking, we owe so much to Chinese and Korean cultures, thus, these 2 "賀正" and "謹賀新年" are actually Japanese version of Chinese haha. Now, as a starter, I think you need to know that we, Japanese, use different manner to different person. ( Meaning if the recipient is higher in social ranking ( ...


6

Actually, you hardly have a chance to use them in conversation and everyday writing. The only places for these words are billboards and greeting letters, especially New Year's Cards (年賀状). Both of them are ye olde bywords even Japanese rarely know what they mean, but nevertheless used as convenient slogans roughly mean "Happy New Year". Yes, they differ in ...


5

1) 飲み物やカップや~ 2) 飲み物とかカップとか~ 2 is more colloquial and casual. 3) 桃や洋ナシやリンゴなどのフルーツ味 4) 桃や洋ナシやリンゴとかのフルーツ味 5) 桃とか洋ナシとかリンゴとかのフルーツ味 3 is the most literary and 5 is the most colloquial. (You can say 桃や洋ナシやりんごなど/とか + の/が/をetc. but not 桃や洋ナシやりんごや + の/が/をetc.)



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