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21

You are mixing i-adjective かわいい (kawaii, "cute, lovely") with na-adjective かわいそう (kawaisō, "poor, pitiful"). These are simply different, although they share the same etymology. かわいい(かはゆし) actually meant 'pitiful' in old Japanese, but there was a shift in meaning many years ago. We say おいしそう (oishi-sō, "looks yummy"), たのしそう (tanoshi-sō, "looks amusing"), ...


11

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. Sometimes, it is possible to use both「知る」and「分かる」. For example, "Do you know this Kanji?" can be translated to both「この漢字、知ってる?」and「この漢字、分かる?」 ...


10

Both basically share the same meaning, and are interchangeable in most cases. For example, there is no difference between 期末試験 and 期末テスト. But there are set phrases where only one of them is used. 入学試験 entrance exam ((*)入学テスト is unusual) テスト駆動開発 test-driven development ((*)試験駆動開発 is unusual) And I think 試験 sounds a bit more formal and serious. Critical ...


10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

今後 means "from now on", whereas 未来 refers to a time far in the future. Note that 未来 refers to some point in the future, whereas 今後 is something starting from the present, and continuing (indefinitely) into the future. For the near future (even one's own future), you're better off using 将来. 未来 usually has a sense of being farther forward in time than that.


9

The most common form is 「日本語ができますか?」 or 「日本語(を)喋れますか?」. It's completely OK to directly ask someone's ability in this case. I usually make "indirect" questions like 「日本語をお話しになりますか?」 only when I talk to someone who is far higher than me and have to be super polite. 「日本語しゃべるの?」 sounds a bit weird to me, because 「しゃべるの?」 is a casual expression but the speaker ...


8

It is, and it is. It's a way to make references to well-known works without the legal headaches that using the actual copyrighted title would. This is quite common in parodies - Gintama for example has used this trick to no end; the anime does this instead by bleeping out a syllable or two as the character states the name. I could be wrong, but from my ...


8

Although 季【き】 and 節【せつ】 both can mean 'season' within various compounds, they are not used on their own to mean 'season' at least in modern Japanese. You always have to say 季節. Many Japanese compounds are made of two kanji with similar meanings: 危険 (danger + danger), 豊富 (plenty + plenty), 永久 (eternity + eternity), and so on. In most cases, you cannot just ...


8

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


8

We find the following information on their official webpage: 「えん旅」の“えん”には、応援の“援”、出会った人たちとの“縁”、人々が輪でつながる“円”、旅の締めくくりの旅人によるステージでの公”演” などさまざまな意味を込めています。 http://www.nhk.or.jp/ashita/entabi/ They are using kana instead of kanji for the first part to leave its meaning open for the viewer. Also, compare this to how some personal (first) names, especially ...


8

洗濯物が溜まる/洗濯物が積もる 洗濯(物)が溜まる is a very common way to say "to have a lot of clothes to wash". It implies you have to wash that laundry soon. If you do want to emphasize the physical aspect of the pile of the laundry, 洗濯物が積もる may be technically OK. You might say 「洗濯物が山のように積もっていて(or 山のように積んであって)、ドアが開けられない!」 when the laundry is physically blocking the door :) ...


8

私は日本語を話す。 I speak Japanese. 私は日本語を語る。 I talk about Japanese. Since 語る has no special meaning associated with languages, it only means that you are talking what you know or how you feel about Japanese. It's quite popular in Japan to give the title ~を語る to books that celebrities reveal something or specialists express their thoughts. Though I ...


8

Very different, in short. 「良い」 just means "good". It does not say in what way something is good. 「こだわり」 is a noun meaning, in my own words, "being very selective, paying much attention to details, etc." . There is a sense of exclusiveness and/or aesthetics associated with the word. It is often used in advertising.


7

急に is like suddenly I think, this word includes the meanings of without notice or unexpected. すぐに is immediately, as you mentioned. The context describes the baby's general habit, so must be expected things. the answer is 3.すぐに.


7

You can safely use the word 十分 to finish an argument, like this (in the ascending order of politeness): (もう)十分だ! (もう)十分です! (もう)十分でしょう。 「私は十分にあった」 would mean something like "There was a plenty of me", which is weird. 「私は十分だ」 would make sense, which sounds like "As for me, enough. (For others, let them keep arguing if they like)". 「もうたくさんだ!」 ...


7

Should mean こんにちは (Good day) or depending on the time こんばんわ (Good evening). Same as おは for おはよう :)


7

It's for polite use by both genders, and the most generally used first-person pronoun. While it used to be more for women, this is no longer the case. It is true that women tend to use わたし (watashi) more than other pronouns, but it is not a feminine pronoun†, and it is frequently used by men. It is more polite than others and also used more generally. ...


7

Those two words do not assume the same roles. 少{すこ}し is an adverb and 少{すく}ない is an i-adjective. So basically, 少し will modify a verb whereas 少ない will tell that there is not much of something. Some examples. 友達{ともだち}が少ない。I don't have a lot of friends. 時間{じかん}が少なくなった。There is not much time left. (lit. Time has become rarer.) ...


6

In this context, 「て」 = 「ても」. In informal speech, 「て」 is often used instead of 「ても」. What is 「ても」, then? It is a compound of two particles used to express "permission" or "tolerance". Both of the following phrases mean "It is OK to ~~", "It is OK if ~~" with the first one being more informal than the second. 「~~て(も)いい」 「~~て(も)かまわない」 Thus, your ...


6

A phrase that hasn't been mentioned and may prove very useful would be とんでもないです。 とんでもないことでございます。 It's a polite way of saying "not at all". I think どういたしまして is polite, but somehow carries too much the nuance of "You're welcome" in that it accepts the fact that whoever is thanking you is correct in thanking you. とんでもない rejects the very idea of ...


6

クラス at school can refer to: a group of students who learn together (このクラスには生徒が35人います。) a lesson, a lecture (5分後に数学のクラスが始まります) In kanji, the former is 学級, and the latter is 授業/講義. 学級 and クラス (in the first meaning) are basically interchangeable, but 学級 is typically used in elementary and middle schools. For some reasons, people start to prefer クラス maybe ...


6

Although it's etymologically a compound of 落{お}ち+入{い}る, it's now usually written 陥る instead. The NHK漢字表記辞典 recommends writing it 陥る and doesn't mention the other spelling at all. Some dictionaries list both spellings, as you point out; for example, 明鏡国語辞典 lists the word under 陥る but mentions the alternative etymological spelling: 〔表記〕語源を反映させて「落ち入る」とも。 ...


6

答{こた}え is a generic word that can mean answer, response or solution. 回答{かいとう} is a response to being asked something. It is always elicited by someone else. (An unsolicted answer/solution to, say, a riddle would be either 解答{かいとう} or 答え.) 正解{せいかい} means correct. Usually said in reponse to someone's 回答 (e.g., in a quiz).


6

I think very few Japanese people recognize that 予定調和 is from Leibniz (I didn't know that). When this appears in daily conversations, it means "safe but expected result", "without surprise/trouble", "never changing", "repeated many times", "according to the scenario", etc. Typically this is used for long-running TV series like サザエさん, where characters never ...


6

(Note that 寝る doesn't necessarily imply sleeping, but can mean "to lie down".) 寝台 is just what it says: an elevated platform (台) for lying down / sleeping (寝) and usually refers to the "bed"s in couchette/sleeping cars in trains (or buses, ships, etc.).


6

回復 is a general word for recovery, though it's often used for economics, healing from injuries / diseases, and the weather getting better: [景気]{けいき}の回復が[急務]{きゅうむ}とされている。 [怪我]{けが}のほうもすっかり回復しました。 [台風]{たいふう}は[今夜中]{こんやじゅう}に[抜]{ぬ}けて、[明日]{あした}にはお[天気]{てんき}も回復する[見込]{みこ}みです。 修復 is used mostly for artifact restorations (like in the question) and ...


6

I think there is almost no difference in their meanings, and the two phrases are almost always interchangeable. I said almost because I can not think of even a single counter example in a few minutes as a native speaker. By the way, you can also use a verb, '計画する', without 'を' in a similar way. For example, 旅行の計画を立てる。 旅行の計画をする。 are similar to ...


6

Literally, 各位 is a respectful way to say "each" or "all". So "All customers" might be a more literal translation. Practically, 各位 is often used as a suffix in formal headings to convey the meaning of "Dear ..." or "Attention all ...". These kinds of headings are often highly stylized and fixed, so don't let it concern you if the translation doesn't work on ...



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