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20

You are mixing i-adjective かわいい (kawaii, "cute, lovely") with na-adjective かわいそう (kawaisō, "poor, pitiful"). These are simply different, although they share the same etymology. かわいい(かはゆし) actually meant 'pitiful' in old Japanese, but there was a shift in meaning many years ago. We say おいしそう (oishi-sō, "looks yummy"), たのしそう (tanoshi-sō, "looks amusing"), ...


12

Here is how I and many other native speakers use the two words in real life. I am answering without looking at anything. 「静かさ」 describes the bare physical degree of how "not loud" a thing is. Quietness, while it may be desired, is not a prerequisite here. Examples: 「静かさ」 is used to talk about how quiet a car, airconditioner, street, person, etc. is. ...


11

「やな」 is a Kansai affirmative sentence-ender just like 「だな」 for Kanto. 「[久]{ひさ}しぶりやな。」 = "Long time no see, yeah?" or just "Long time no see!" 「いい[感]{かん}じやなぁ。」 = "That's cool.", "That's pretty good.", etc. Real Kansai people would use ええ, not いい for the second phrase, though.


10

Both basically share the same meaning, and are interchangeable in most cases. For example, there is no difference between 期末試験 and 期末テスト. But there are set phrases where only one of them is used. 入学試験 entrance exam ((*)入学テスト is unusual) テスト駆動開発 test-driven development ((*)試験駆動開発 is unusual) And I think 試験 sounds a bit more formal and serious. Critical ...


10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

今後 means "from now on", whereas 未来 refers to a time far in the future. Note that 未来 refers to some point in the future, whereas 今後 is something starting from the present, and continuing (indefinitely) into the future. For the near future (even one's own future), you're better off using 将来. 未来 usually has a sense of being farther forward in time than that.


9

In short, your waiter said what he said because it is the "in" thing to do for young workers (mostly part-time) at inexpensive restaurants, fast food places, convenience stores, etc. This speech style is called 「マニュアル[敬語]{けいご}」, 「コンビニ[言葉]{ことば}」、「ファミレス言葉」, etc. and it has been very common the last 20 years or so. (マニュアル = "manual", ファミレス = "family ...


9

The most common form is 「日本語ができますか?」 or 「日本語(を)喋れますか?」. It's completely OK to directly ask someone's ability in this case. I usually make "indirect" questions like 「日本語をお話しになりますか?」 only when I talk to someone who is far higher than me and have to be super polite. 「日本語しゃべるの?」 sounds a bit weird to me, because 「しゃべるの?」 is a casual expression but the speaker ...


9

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. Sometimes, it is possible to use both「知る」and「分かる」. For example, "Do you know this Kanji?" can be translated to both「この漢字、知ってる?」and「この漢字、分かる?」 ...


8

Although 季【き】 and 節【せつ】 both can mean 'season' within various compounds, they are not used on their own to mean 'season' at least in modern Japanese. You always have to say 季節. Many Japanese compounds are made of two kanji with similar meanings: 危険 (danger + danger), 豊富 (plenty + plenty), 永久 (eternity + eternity), and so on. In most cases, you cannot just ...


8

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


8

It is, and it is. It's a way to make references to well-known works without the legal headaches that using the actual copyrighted title would. This is quite common in parodies - Gintama for example has used this trick to no end; the anime does this instead by bleeping out a syllable or two as the character states the name. I could be wrong, but from my ...


8

Generally speaking, yes, words like 魚類, 人類, and 哺乳類 sound more technical and scientific than 魚, 人, or 哺乳動物. 魚【さかな】(和語) is the word we usually use when we want to say fish in daily life, for example at supermarkets, while 魚類 (漢語) is only used in the biological context. I think the basic difference between 人 and 人類 is the same as the difference between person ...


8

We find the following information on their official webpage: 「えん旅」の“えん”には、応援の“援”、出会った人たちとの“縁”、人々が輪でつながる“円”、旅の締めくくりの旅人によるステージでの公”演” などさまざまな意味を込めています。 http://www.nhk.or.jp/ashita/entabi/ They are using kana instead of kanji for the first part to leave its meaning open for the viewer. Also, compare this to how some personal (first) names, especially ...


8

洗濯物が溜まる/洗濯物が積もる 洗濯(物)が溜まる is a very common way to say "to have a lot of clothes to wash". It implies you have to wash that laundry soon. If you do want to emphasize the physical aspect of the pile of the laundry, 洗濯物が積もる may be technically OK. You might say 「洗濯物が山のように積もっていて(or 山のように積んであって)、ドアが開けられない!」 when the laundry is physically blocking the door :) ...


8

私は日本語を話す。 I speak Japanese. 私は日本語を語る。 I talk about Japanese. Since 語る has no special meaning associated with languages, it only means that you are talking what you know or how you feel about Japanese. It's quite popular in Japan to give the title ~を語る to books that celebrities reveal something or specialists express their thoughts. Though I ...


8

Very different, in short. 「良い」 just means "good". It does not say in what way something is good. 「こだわり」 is a noun meaning, in my own words, "being very selective, paying much attention to details, etc." . There is a sense of exclusiveness and/or aesthetics associated with the word. It is often used in advertising.


7

会社の名前{なまえ} consists of two nouns, one describing the other. The one with の is in genitive case which is used to indicate possession in this case. It's roughly equivalent to 's or of in English: company's name or the name of the company (both are translated to 会社の名前). Note that 名前 is a native Japanese word and it uses kun-yomi reading of the kanji in this ...


7

First, I will talk about how to use 「[励]{はげ}む」 and later on, other possible expressions. Both 「[勉強]{べんきょう}に励む」 and 「[勉学]{べんがく}に励む」 sound natural with the latter being more formal or "adult-speaker-like". Next, how to combine 励む with other verbs. You used 「励ます」, which is a transitive verb meaning "to encourage someone to do something". You cannot use ...


7

急に is like suddenly I think, this word includes the meanings of without notice or unexpected. すぐに is immediately, as you mentioned. The context describes the baby's general habit, so must be expected things. the answer is 3.すぐに.


7

You can safely use the word 十分 to finish an argument, like this (in the ascending order of politeness): (もう)十分だ! (もう)十分です! (もう)十分でしょう。 「私は十分にあった」 would mean something like "There was a plenty of me", which is weird. 「私は十分だ」 would make sense, which sounds like "As for me, enough. (For others, let them keep arguing if they like)". 「もうたくさんだ!」 ...


7

Should mean こんにちは (Good day) or depending on the time こんばんわ (Good evening). Same as おは for おはよう :)


6

It means ”だね”, and if I am not mistaken can be heard in the 関西 area. For example, せやな is the same as そうだね. So, いい感じやなぁ would be the same as いい感じだね.


6

Usually, a common word like kaisha will only ever be written as かいしゃ instead of 会社 in these two cases: When accomodating for young children or non-Japanese speakers who might not be able to read kanji (yet). For stylistic/typographic purposes. For example, as part of an all-hiragana name of a company on a billboard. Just another way to stand out in an ...


6

In this context, 「て」 = 「ても」. In informal speech, 「て」 is often used instead of 「ても」. What is 「ても」, then? It is a compound of two particles used to express "permission" or "tolerance". Both of the following phrases mean "It is OK to ~~", "It is OK if ~~" with the first one being more informal than the second. 「~~て(も)いい」 「~~て(も)かまわない」 Thus, your ...


6

A phrase that hasn't been mentioned and may prove very useful would be とんでもないです。 とんでもないことでございます。 It's a polite way of saying "not at all". I think どういたしまして is polite, but somehow carries too much the nuance of "You're welcome" in that it accepts the fact that whoever is thanking you is correct in thanking you. とんでもない rejects the very idea of ...


6

クラス at school can refer to: a group of students who learn together (このクラスには生徒が35人います。) a lesson, a lecture (5分後に数学のクラスが始まります) In kanji, the former is 学級, and the latter is 授業/講義. 学級 and クラス (in the first meaning) are basically interchangeable, but 学級 is typically used in elementary and middle schools. For some reasons, people start to prefer クラス maybe ...



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