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13

リア充 is different from "playboy". リア充: an internet meme constructed from リアル (real) + 充実【じゅうじつ】 (fulfill). a person who is successful or fulfilled in real life (vs. an otaku who is living in the world of anime or video games). In most cases this refers to someone who has a lover, used with some sense of jealousy. Sometimes this is used to refer to any ...


12

From http://dict.hjenglish.com/jp/jc/はかる 計る - to measure (quantities and in general) “計る”指计数物品的数量。转义为计划。如“计划时间”、“量体温”、“计算数量”、“筹划组织的将来”等。 (「計る」は、物の数を数えること。転じて、計画すること。「時間を計る」「体温を計る」「数量を計る」「組織の将来を計る」など。) 計る is used for counting/measuring the number of something. It can also mean "to plan". (General word for measuring things) 時間を計る - Plan a time 体温を計る ...


12

Here is how I and many other native speakers use the two words in real life. I am answering without looking at anything. 「静かさ」 describes the bare physical degree of how "not loud" a thing is. Quietness, while it may be desired, is not a prerequisite here. Examples: 「静かさ」 is used to talk about how quiet a car, airconditioner, street, person, etc. is. ...


11

「やな」 is a Kansai affirmative sentence-ender just like 「だな」 for Kanto. 「[久]{ひさ}しぶりやな。」 = "Long time no see, yeah?" or just "Long time no see!" 「いい[感]{かん}じやなぁ。」 = "That's cool.", "That's pretty good.", etc. Real Kansai people would use ええ, not いい for the second phrase, though.


10

Both basically share the same meaning, and are interchangeable in most cases. For example, there is no difference between 期末試験 and 期末テスト. But there are set phrases where only one of them is used. 入学試験 entrance exam ((*)入学テスト is unusual) テスト駆動開発 test-driven development ((*)試験駆動開発 is unusual) And I think 試験 sounds a bit more formal and serious. Critical ...


10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

今後 means "from now on", whereas 未来 refers to a time far in the future. Note that 未来 refers to some point in the future, whereas 今後 is something starting from the present, and continuing (indefinitely) into the future. For the near future (even one's own future), you're better off using 将来. 未来 usually has a sense of being farther forward in time than that.


9

As a customer, using either one is completely fine. Among us native speakers, it is like each person has a habit of using one over the other. Point is each eatery tends to use one word over the other among its staff members as well, meaning that even when you order by saying, for instance, 「[卵]{たまご}なしで = "with no eggs"」, your waiter/waitress might reply ...


9

In short, your waiter said what he said because it is the "in" thing to do for young workers (mostly part-time) at inexpensive restaurants, fast food places, convenience stores, etc. This speech style is called 「マニュアル[敬語]{けいご}」, 「コンビニ[言葉]{ことば}」、「ファミレス言葉」, etc. and it has been very common the last 20 years or so. (マニュアル = "manual", ファミレス = "family ...


9

The most common form is 「日本語ができますか?」 or 「日本語(を)喋れますか?」. It's completely OK to directly ask someone's ability in this case. I usually make "indirect" questions like 「日本語をお話しになりますか?」 only when I talk to someone who is far higher than me and have to be super polite. 「日本語しゃべるの?」 sounds a bit weird to me, because 「しゃべるの?」 is a casual expression but the speaker ...


9

I am a native Japanese, and I discussed this today. To be honest, this was quite interesting for us. I see many good answers here. The concept of "inside or outside" in another answer strikes close to a good point. Sometimes, it is possible to use both「知る」and「分かる」. For example, "Do you know this Kanji?" can be translated to both「この漢字、知ってる?」and「この漢字、分かる?」 ...


8

Generally speaking, yes, words like 魚類, 人類, and 哺乳類 sound more technical and scientific than 魚, 人, or 哺乳動物. 魚【さかな】(和語) is the word we usually use when we want to say fish in daily life, for example at supermarkets, while 魚類 (漢語) is only used in the biological context. I think the basic difference between 人 and 人類 is the same as the difference between person ...


8

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


8

Although 季【き】 and 節【せつ】 both can mean 'season' within various compounds, they are not used on their own to mean 'season' at least in modern Japanese. You always have to say 季節. Many Japanese compounds are made of two kanji with similar meanings: 危険 (danger + danger), 豊富 (plenty + plenty), 永久 (eternity + eternity), and so on. In most cases, you cannot just ...


8

We find the following information on their official webpage: 「えん旅」の“えん”には、応援の“援”、出会った人たちとの“縁”、人々が輪でつながる“円”、旅の締めくくりの旅人によるステージでの公”演” などさまざまな意味を込めています。 http://www.nhk.or.jp/ashita/entabi/ They are using kana instead of kanji for the first part to leave its meaning open for the viewer. Also, compare this to how some personal (first) names, especially ...


8

洗濯物が溜まる/洗濯物が積もる 洗濯(物)が溜まる is a very common way to say "to have a lot of clothes to wash". It implies you have to wash that laundry soon. If you do want to emphasize the physical aspect of the pile of the laundry, 洗濯物が積もる may be technically OK. You might say 「洗濯物が山のように積もっていて(or 山のように積んであって)、ドアが開けられない!」 when the laundry is physically blocking the door :) ...


8

Very different, in short. 「良い」 just means "good". It does not say in what way something is good. 「こだわり」 is a noun meaning, in my own words, "being very selective, paying much attention to details, etc." . There is a sense of exclusiveness and/or aesthetics associated with the word. It is often used in advertising.


7

In informal situations (like yours, talking to a friend), I see nothing wrong with "先生になりたい" for all kinds of teacher. It is quite common for honorific words to shift towards use as general nouns in informal situations. For example, in informal settings, many will use お母さん (honorable mother) to refer to their own mother.


7

In general, you're correct. Calling yourself as sensei has to be avoided, because it's an honorific word. The better word is 教師【きょうし】. However there is an exception. If you are to become Sensei of elementary schools or kindergartens, I think it is OK to say "小学校の先生になりたい", at least informally. Kids do not understand honorific expressions, and teachers in ...


7

会社の名前{なまえ} consists of two nouns, one describing the other. The one with の is in genitive case which is used to indicate possession in this case. It's roughly equivalent to 's or of in English: company's name or the name of the company (both are translated to 会社の名前). Note that 名前 is a native Japanese word and it uses kun-yomi reading of the kanji in this ...


7

I think it's the second sense for 訪れる in Wiktionary: 季節・状況などがやってくる。 Other dictionaries give similar definitions. Here's the relevant sense from 広辞苑: (ある時期・状況などが)やってくる。「春が訪れる」「世界に平和が訪れる日」 So 最初に訪れる3月末 would mean something like "the first March 31 that arrives", although arrive is a bit literal and we probably don't need to use it in translation, ...


7

住む is to live somewhere in the sense of residency. It's where your house is, where you're staying. It's the same kanji as in 住所{じゅうしょ}, or address. Basically the place where you live. You're right about 棲む. It refers to where an animal lives, like where a bird would make its nest. Googling it I find a lot of literary uses, especially with relation to ...


7

ssb's answer seems perfect, so let me give some examples so you can see the differences between 住む and 暮らす better. Live in Tokyo: 東京に住む OK 東京で暮らす OK Live a happy life: 幸せに住む WEIRD 幸せに暮らす OK Spend his life as a fisherman: 漁師として住む WEIRD 漁師として暮らす OK Survive using only ¥1000 a day: 1日1000円で住む WEIRD 1日1000円で暮らす OK You can also think "住む" is a ...


7

The direct object particle を stands next to the word of phrase that is the direct object in your sentence. This phrase in your translation is 「わたし の てがみ の うえ の つくえ」. To analyse the meaning of this phrase, let's look at its parts: 「わたし の てがみ」 - My letter. 「わたし の てがみ の うえ」 - Above my letter. 「わたし の てがみ の うえ の つくえ」 - The desk above my letter. So the direct ...


7

First, I will talk about how to use 「[励]{はげ}む」 and later on, other possible expressions. Both 「[勉強]{べんきょう}に励む」 and 「[勉学]{べんがく}に励む」 sound natural with the latter being more formal or "adult-speaker-like". Next, how to combine 励む with other verbs. You used 「励ます」, which is a transitive verb meaning "to encourage someone to do something". You cannot use ...


7

急に is like suddenly I think, this word includes the meanings of without notice or unexpected. すぐに is immediately, as you mentioned. The context describes the baby's general habit, so must be expected things. the answer is 3.すぐに.


7

You can safely use the word 十分 to finish an argument, like this (in the ascending order of politeness): (もう)十分だ! (もう)十分です! (もう)十分でしょう。 「私は十分にあった」 would mean something like "There was a plenty of me", which is weird. 「私は十分だ」 would make sense, which sounds like "As for me, enough. (For others, let them keep arguing if they like)". 「もうたくさんだ!」 ...



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