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16

You are right that ◯ is used here to mask a letter. There are several related but different reasons as to why one would do this. The comment section already refers to one such use, where certain words are deemed inappropriate (especially on broadcasting), the equivalent of f*ck. But I don't think that explains this one. In this case, I think the intention ...


10

I applaud your courage to try something new and more sophisticated, when you can so easily use some safe & mandane expressions like お久しぶり! Unfortunately, things like this entirely depend on the context and what your perceived character is to the other person, for there's always some context in which almost any expression is appropriate. For example, if ...


10

It's a contraction of 答えれば. More generally, eba contracts to ya: kotaereba → kotaerya  (答えれば → 答えりゃ) okeba  → okya    (おけば  → おきゃ) ieba   → iya     (言えば  → 言や) nakereba → nakerya  (なければ → なけりゃ) (As you can see, the pattern is easier to see and describe when romanized.)


10

An excerpt from 広辞苑's definition for 鉄拳: 堅く握りかためたこぶし。にぎりこぶし。げんこつ。 In short, こぶし means fist, while 鉄拳 means more specifically a tightly clenched fist. This should come as no surprise to you, as you've already looked it up in dictionaries which say so. It's true that it literally means "iron fist", but it isn't generally used for its literal meaning. ...


10

To us native speakers, 「好奇心」 is a fairly big word and we do not use it as often as English-speakers might use "curiosity" in informal situations (or out on the street, so to speak). Natural ways to say "I'm just curious but ~~" or "Just out of curiosity, ~~" would be: Informal: 「ちょっと[聞]{き}きたいんだけど~~」、「[参考]{さんこう}までに~~」、「参考までに聞くけど~~」, etc. More formal: ...


9

It's a vocative particle, like the English vocative "O" in the following example: O Rain! Please change into snow! It sounds poetic or literary. It's defined as 係助詞「よ」 in 集英社国語辞典: 係助詞。相手への呼びかけ。「泣くな妹よ、妹よ泣くな」「風よ伝えよ、かの人に」「モズよ、寒いと鳴くでねえ」 I bolded the meaning, which is basically vocative.


8

If I had to try to generalize, I'd say: 下りる is used for moving downward, including a number of metaphorical or idiomatic uses 降りる is used mainly for falling back or getting out of a vehicle But I think it helps to be more specific, so I've put together a little outline with some examples: 下りる Move downward [descend, climb down, fall, fly down, land] ...


8

In colloquial speech, 全然 = 全然ダメ. You can treat this 全然 as a 形容動詞 (I just do not like the word "na-adjective" because it does not exist in Japanese.). So, it is quite natural to say 全然だった in informal speech. ダンスとかあったら全然だったと思う, therefore means: "I think I would have been a total failure if I had had to dance or something."


7

As a Japanese person, I'd say: 「言い草」 is often used to indicate the manner a person displays when he / she speaks. For example, if I'm a father and I ask my teenage son about school, and he replies, 「あんたに関係ないだろ」 'Why do I need to tell you?' then I might get fed up and say 「何なんだその言い草は!」 which basically means 'What way of talking is that?' and implies 'Is that ...


7

There are several that really do not belong. 町 refers to an area, not a road. It refers to a unit of government smaller than a city (thus probably close to what you call a town.) 通り道 means "on a route to commute/school/wherever you are going to." So when you use this word, the topic of the conversation is someone and not the road itself. 街道 refers to long ...


7

I think apt use of 四字熟語 does demonstrate sophistication, just like, it seems, in Chinese. 四字熟語 are taught at the 高校 level, with other parts of the curriculum being 漢文, literature, etc., which alone should tell you something about the perceived status of these "idioms". The infamous 四字熟語 exam question is: Complete ◯肉◯食. with the correct answer being ...


7

It's basically a shortening of それで何?, meaning something along the lines of 'and so...?' or 'then what?' It asks for either a continuation of the thought (especially in a story or something else temporally organised) or a conclusion (as in 'what you just said is setting something up, what is it?').


7

I think there are no much differences between そうだね, そうだな, そうですね and そうね. To tell the careful thing, そうですね is the polite form, and そうね sounds like (a little bit!) childish. I don't know no other versions except for dialects. By the way, そうですな is not wrong, but it sounds funny. Because if you say so, I feel like you are an elderly gentleman.


7

In real life in 2013, not many people address their partners as 君. It is certainly not obsolete but only a small minority of us use the pronoun. You will hear it much more often in fiction such as song lyrics, manga, dramas, films, etc. Most of us use first names or nicknames instead of pronouns. Some use pronouns like お[前]{まえ}(men to women) and あなた(more ...


7

There is no difference in meaning between 「おいしい」 and 「うまい」 --- "delicious", "tasty", "yummy", etc. --- but there is a difference in usage and nuance. 「おいしい」 sounds more refined and often more feminine than 「うまい」. 「うまい」 sounds more down-to-earth and intuitive, and it could carry a small amount of light vulgarity. If you were a Japanese-speaking parent, ...


7

私たち almost always means "we". 私 almost always means "I". It (and other Japanese words usually translated as personal pronouns in English) can mean "you","him",or "her" in cases where it's obvious from the context - though it's a bit unusual for the word 私 or 私たち. A common example of this 1st to 2nd person pronoun switcheroo happens with the word 僕 (ぼく). 僕 ...


7

「[神様]{かみさま}、[仏様]{ほとけさま}、(one's own name) + [様]{さま}!」, trust me, is NOT something "normal" people would ever say in their entire lives. 橋本環奈 is not a normal person; She is a top idol. It looks like her agency selected that phrase in question as the catch phrase for her to use in self-introduction. The use of the phrase in baseball is the normal use of ...


7

Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite: それはリンゴだ  That is an apple それはリンゴです That is an apple (polite) But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives: あかい    is red あかいです  is red (polite) When it's a politeness marker, です doesn't inflect for tense: あかいです    is red (polite) あかかったです  was red (polite) The ...


6

First of all, it's worth mentioning that Google counts may not be as reliable as you imagine. But to answer your question, it's a little bit complicated. Generally speaking, when talking about salary, you will want to use 高い・安い to describe it. After conducting a brief survey, I found 低い給料 to be considered acceptable, but slightly unnatural. その会社は給料が安い is ...


6

Needless to say, both have the same meaning and both are informal. ちょっと待って is more versatile in that basically anyone, regardless of age, gender and other general characteristics of the speaker, can use it in nearly all informal situations where one wants to ask another person to wait a second. ちょっと待った fairly strictly chooses the speakers and situations. ...


6

Assuming that the phrase was taken from this page, the use of 「として」 is 100% correct and natural. You cannot use 「を」 in place of 「として」 because the direct object of that sentence is NOT 「コソアド」. It is 「[指示詞]{しじし}と[疑問詞]{ぎもんし}」 or more formally and appropriately in this context, 「指示詞[及]{およ}び疑問詞」, which was omitted. Thus, it is talking about "treating 指示詞及び疑問詞 ...


6

言えよう = 言えるだろう The よう part is the same as the ろう part of だろう, both originated from む. In modern Japanese, you will use だろう for all verbs, nouns and adjectives for this meaning. But in classic Japanese, you use different forms for them. Although slightly archaic, they are still used in academic writings. よい → よかろう = よいだろう 神だ → 神であろう = 神だろう 言える → 言えよう = ...


6

[死]{し}に[馬]{うま} sounds archaic to me. I don't think you can use this 死に for other animals (*死に猫, *死に犬, *死に牛...) at least in modern Japanese. I can only think of [死]{し}に[人]{びと} (and maybe [死]{し}に[金]{がね}?). 死んだ人, [死人]{しにん}, [死者]{ししゃ} are more common. 死んだ/死んでいる馬に鞭を打つ is grammatically fine and makes perfect sense. Maybe 死に馬に鞭を打つ sounds better as a proverb.  


5

It's actually the particle しか "nothing but/nobody but" plus いなかった, the negative past form of いる "to be/to exist" (animate). Your translation is right. It means "I was the only one there". The particle しか is always paired with negative verbs like this. Taking an example from A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar (p.401): ボブしか[来]{こ}なかった。 Nobody but ...


5

のぼる means "to climb" and あがる means "to rise". I find it an interesting observation that both are used when describing a weather event: 太陽が[昇]{のぼ}る The sun rises. 雨が上がる The rain stops. As Jesse Good explains in his answer, のぼる and あがる are different in that the former means that something/someone is climbing by his own strength, whereas the ...


5

ぜ and ぞ are sentence-final particles used (primarily) by male speakers which are more colloquial versions of the particle よ. In order of decreasing politeness, they are 逃げるよ。 逃げるぞ。 逃げるぜ。 The addition of よ・ぞ・ぜ give the statement an assertive feel, maybe like an exclamation mark or adding something like "hey!" (although that's already represented in ...


5

About the nuance of お嬢さま. The difference is visual. Someone described as お嬢様, besides being a young unmarried female, has also cultivated (or been raised to have) a sense of upper-class refinement, most immediately evident through her appearance and attitude. Perhaps in between Scarlett O'Hara and Holly Golightly? Looking closely at that フジ三太郎 comic ...


5

An interesting reply here to a similar question suggests that 慕う is directed towards someone close to you, and 憧れる more distant (e.g. you can 憧れる someone like an author or actor who you don't actually know). So perhaps there is some difference in your example sentences regarding the implied type of relationship between 彼女 and 先輩, where the 慕う version ...


5

What's the deal with these triplets? Why are there two accepted verbs of one form for the same meaning? Are they somehow different? Yes, their usage is slightly different. A web article below well answers your question: Coexistent transitive verbs : "Tsunagu" and "Tsunageru" http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110004672022 For '繋げる/繋ぐ' case: '繋ぐ' refers to ...



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