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誕生日まで(あと)8日です。 There are 8 (more) days until my birthday. (Sidenote: 8日 can be pronounced 「ようか」 or 「はちにち」, though I think NHK recommends 「はちにち」 for time intervals like this.)


おりる and くだる both mean to move from a high place to a low(er) place. The difference is that the former focuses on the end point/result, whereas the latter focuses on the movement and/or the course taken. さがる means to go down or back, often used in relation to some value or standard. You also use it when a part of something (bodily or other) lowers from its ...


When there is no copula and nothing seems to be omitted, as in your second example, I interpret the sentence as simply a fragment, used to "set the scene", and would translate it as such. It is very reminiscent of how fragments are used in descriptive passages in English: Pale druggists in remote towns of the Epworth League and flannel nightgown belts, ...

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