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修行 is primarily used for (endless/lifelong) religious discipline; it's something Buddhist monks or priests do every day. Note that this kanji 行 (gyō) on its own means 'religious training/discipline/practice', as in 行者 (gyōja, person who does 修行, especially that of 修験道), 滝行 (takigyō, waterfall meditation), 苦行 (kugyō, hard discipline), etc. You can also use 修行 ...


5

A lot has changed, IMO one good way is to compare newspapers from the days. This one is from the Meiji era: http://www.geocities.jp/tanaka_kunitaka/takeshima/saninshimbun/02.gif This one from during WW2: http://userdisk.webry.biglobe.ne.jp/005/523/32/N000/000/000/123528635262516412541.jpg This is from 1960: ...


3

The difference is minimal. They can be used interchangeably most of the time. The actual conceptual difference between 月曜 and 月曜日 is not so hard to understand, either. First you have to know that what 曜 exactly refers to is "planet" in astrology. Thus, 月曜 means "planet of Moon" and 月曜日 is "day of planet of Moon". So it's like we're actually calling it ...


3

This 'instead' was kindly inserted by the translator because the speaker did not use も (=also, as well) in the original sentence. It's the absence of も that implies the speaker is suggesting buying something else instead. 靴(を)買うならTシャツも買っては? If you're going to buy shoes, why don't you buy a T-shirt as well? 靴(を)買うならTシャツ(を)買っては? If you're going to ...


2

I don't know exactly why 船越義珍 used 修業 since 修行 would also make sense. But since he did, I think the quote should only be considered correct the way you stated it: 空手の修業は一生である。 Firstly, since you probably don't know, 修 is often pronounced しゅう (shū, long U), but in both 修業 and 修行, it may be pronounced しゅ (shu, short U), so there are three words, しゅぎょう ...


1

The word 修業 is used for something you can complete/graduate/master. This is why we use 卒業 to express a graduation from something. I think we never use 卒行 in this situation. At least I have never seen 卒行 in my life. On the other hand, the word 修行 is used for something you can not complete. Thus, when you say Karate is a lifelong pursuit. 修行 does fit ...



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