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42

As stated in some of the other answers, the fundamental difference is that 分{わ}かる is "to understand", and 知{し}る is "to know", which helps differentiate the two as concepts. However, I think that doesn't fully answer your question. Many years ago, early in my Japanese learning, when a Japanese friend asked me what I was going to do tomorrow, I said ...


35

(This question had to show up eventually… :) For my answer, I'll be borrowing most example sentences and categorizations from pages 176-179 of 初級【しょきゅう】を教【おし】える人【ひと】のための日本語【にほんご】文法【ぶんぽう】ハンドブック and from this PDF. Cases where only の is allowed When the following verb deals with one of the senses: 聞く【きく】, 聞こえる【きこえる】, 見る【みる】, 見える【みえる】, 感じる【かんじる】, and so on. ...


29

Beside some of the historical examples mentioned by Derek, there is also an inherent nuance that separates 青 from 'blue', as it is commonly understood in Western culture (and similarly, albeit less strongly, for 緑 and 'green'). This is not unique to Japanese-English and probably applicable to any pairs of sufficiently separate cultures: colours are, for a ...


18

~ていく and ~てくる (usually written in kana, since they are such common suffixes) can express both physical movement (such as in 行【い】 ってくる "go and come back") or a continued change in state. Since your question regards the latter usage, I'll restrict my answer to that. To use your examples: 雨【あめ】がやんできた。 The rain [over a period of time up until now] stopped. ...


18

Your book is correct. When talking about human body temperature, 三十 is often omitted, probably because it is obvious. While there is nothing wrong with saying 37度8分 (37.8 degrees Celsius), it is often abbreviated to 7度8分. Even 37度 (37 degrees Celsius) without a fractional part sometimes becomes 7度. You cannot abbreviate the temperature when it is 40 ...


18

でも and けど are both "but". However, けど links a second clause - which may or may not be actually said out loud. So, when you are saying "あした は やすみ です けど." you are actually saying something more like: "Tomorrow is a holiday (but), so we can't go to the store" but dropping the "obvious" bit of the sentence. -- Another very important usage of this - at ...


17

ネタ is a semi-slang term that comes from reversing the characters of "seed" タネ. It's a word with many uses, but in all uses it denotes the "seed" of the idea of a work, it's essential core. In cooking, the ネタ of a dish is the key ingredient that makes a particular dish interesting. For example, the ネタ of a piece of sushi is the non-rice part of the sushi. ...


16

You are right that ◯ is used here to mask a letter. There are several related but different reasons as to why one would do this. The comment section already refers to one such use, where certain words are deemed inappropriate (especially on broadcasting), the equivalent of f*ck. But I don't think that explains this one. In this case, I think the intention ...


16

Your two examples are incorrect in the “standard” dialect. Some dialects (such as the Gunma dialect and the Saitama dialect) use ん instead of の in a question as in your first example. The second example may also be used in some dialects.


16

According to the Wikipedia article on these two, 以下 and 以上 include the number that precedes them. 50以上 => 50 or more 50以下 => 50 or less If you want to exclude the number on the upper end (instead of 以下) use 未満(みまん). 1000円未満 (less than 1,000 yen, not including 1,000) I had a few different discussions (and taking Ito-san's point below as well) ...


15

According to page 91 of the 類義語使い分け辞典 [1], quoted here, 一緒に requires that the action take place in the same time and location. 共に does not have this restriction, so the subjects may perform the action (let's say 日本へ行く) at the same time but via a different route, or via the same route but at slightly different times. 「彼女と一緒に日本へ来た」 means that you and she came ...


15

と and や are used to connect two or more nouns. Most of the time, と can only be used for a fixed number of items like: "キーボードとマウスいる". (we need) keyboard and mouse But や is used when there is a variable/unknown length like: "キーボードやマウス、そしてLANケーブルとかいるかも" (we need) keyboard, mouse and probably LAN cables also. Also や has some sense for ...


15

氏名 always refers to a person's full name, both family and given. It also has the connotation of "legal name." 名前 also refers to a person's full name--but it can also mean their given name, in the right context (for instance, "We gave the baby a name" or "I want you to call me by my name"). 名前 can also refer to the names of objects, while 氏名 cannot.


15

成人 is a very specific term and refers to persons who reached the age of 20 and above. It's derived from the definition of the Japanese law, which says "年齢二十歳をもって、成年とする". You used to get drafted and taxed after this age. In today's context, it's the legal drinking/smoking age. 大人 is a more lax term and usually means persons that are older than around 18 ...


15

花見 usually refers to cherry-blossom viewing. However, it can refer to other kind of blossom trees. For example, 梅の花見 refers to plum-blossom viewing, and when it is clear from the context, it can be also referred to simply as 花見. 花見 does not refer to viewing flowers in general. For example, going to view orchids or tulips is not usually considered as 花見.


15

記憶 is a neutral term for memory. It can be of any while ago, from sub-mili-seconds or shorter to milleniums or longer. It can be used for physical effects like hysteresis effects or memory on an electronic device. It can be used for humans as well. 思い出 is subjective. It implies nostalgia, good memories or bad memories. The past it is referring to is usually ...


15

The video game Star Fox 64 uses 作戦完了 when you fulfill your mission objective, and 作戦終了 when the mission is over but there's some objective you haven't fulfilled. The English version translates these as "Mission Accomplished" and "Mission Complete", respectively. So perhaps 完了 suggests some kind of fulfillment, and 終了 is more neutral.


14

Short answer: no. From your link: "It is also written as 「何で」 but it is read as 「なんで」. This is a completely separate word and has nothing to do with the 「で」 particle." Long answer: "何で" can be translated as "how," but a more accurate translation would be "by means of what object"? So from the link you posted, "何できた?" is correct, because it is asking "By ...


14

1日おきに = 2日ごとに (every other day, every second day) ●○●○●○●... 2日おきに = 3日ごとに (every three days, every third day) ●○○●○○●○○●... ごとに(毎に) http://ejje.weblio.jp/content/%E3%81%94%E3%81%A8%E3%81%AB おきに(置きに) http://ejje.weblio.jp/content/2%E6%97%A5%E7%BD%AE%E3%81%8D%E3%81%AB おき(置き) came from the verb 置く(leave). I think it's like "an interval (between the ...


14

What I have been taught in the college is that に is only used for verbs that imply motions which destination/position is required to be specified. For example, if you say "ikimasu" (I'm going), unless already in the context, you need to specify the destination otherwise the sentence does not make sense. So, you use "ni": "asoko ni ikimasu" On the other ...


14

I'd describe it best as a greeting or set phrase used after (any sort of) work has been done. It can be used in a variety of situations: at the end of any shared activity (before leaving home from work, after volunteer work, after group activities like hiking), very much in the sense of "See you..." when greeting somebody who (supposedly) is working or has ...


14

Yes, as a sentence opener, they are mostly identical and definitely interchangeable. As for details and nuances, cursory Googling yielded this: 「ちなみに」は今まで話していた内容に何か付け加えるときや、 その内容と関係があるけど、少し別の方向へ話を発展させるときに使います。 A: この大学には、学部生が500名、大学院生が50名います。 B: ちなみに、そのうち女性は何割ぐらいですか。 ...


14

Japanese has many particles (助詞), and they behave in many varying and different ways, so it's helpful to categorize them before we can see how they can be combined. The semi-traditional classification you'd find in Japanese dictionary usually goes along these lines (note that many particles can fall into more than one of these categories as they have ...


14

Completely context-dependent. Try googling "最近の年号" — in this phrase, 最近 goes back a century or more.


14

Here are the only two exceptions I can think of where you absolutely can't insert "を": If the construction wasn't based on をする but とする like さっぱりする→◯さっぱりとする ☓さっぱりをする If the construction is "merged" single character する verbs like 動じる/動ずる、案じる/案ずる、命じる/命ずる、失する、課する、罰する etc. However, it's uncommon to just add を in in many cases - so the result may be awkward if ...


14

向け is the short-form of the word 向ける and 向き's dictionary form is 向く. 向き/向く has more to do with suitability. For example, someone who is afraid of blood is not suited to be a doctor, we would say 医者に向いてない (not suitable to be a doctor) 向ける/向け has more to do with target and objective. 企業向けの開発 implies that the development is targeted at 企業(enterprise) for ...


14

'です' does follow i-adjectives. It's purpose is to add politeness. I see no problem with it, but maybe I am missing something. Was there a particular example that was discussed when the person said it is dangerous? The only thing I can think of is that the expression can be made milder by adding the sentence final particle ね, which indicates addresser's ...


14

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


14

Basically it depends on how the speaker feels. However, I think we usually say: 死体があります。 ロボットがいます。 if it looks like it has a mind of its own. ロボットがあります。 if it is an industrial robot without a mind. 車がいます。 if it is being driven by a human. 車があります。 when we talk about cars in general. 人工知能(AI)があります。 if it doesn't have anything visual, auditory or physical. ...



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