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48

As stated in some of the other answers, the fundamental difference is that 分{わ}かる is "to understand", and 知{し}る is "to know", which helps differentiate the two as concepts. However, I think that doesn't fully answer your question. Many years ago, early in my Japanese learning, when a Japanese friend asked me what I was going to do tomorrow, I said ...


41

(This question had to show up eventually… :) For my answer, I'll be borrowing most example sentences and categorizations from pages 176-179 of 初級【しょきゅう】を教【おし】える人【ひと】のための日本語【にほんご】文法【ぶんぽう】ハンドブック and from this PDF. Cases where only の is allowed When the following verb deals with one of the senses: 聞く【きく】, 聞こえる【きこえる】, 見る【みる】, 見える【みえる】, 感じる【かんじる】, and so on. ...


30

Beside some of the historical examples mentioned by Derek, there is also an inherent nuance that separates 青 from 'blue', as it is commonly understood in Western culture (and similarly, albeit less strongly, for 緑 and 'green'). This is not unique to Japanese-English and probably applicable to any pairs of sufficiently separate cultures: colours are, for a ...


27

でも and けど are both "but". However, けど links a second clause - which may or may not be actually said out loud. So, when you are saying "あした は やすみ です けど." you are actually saying something more like: "Tomorrow is a holiday (but), so we can't go to the store" but dropping the "obvious" bit of the sentence. -- Another very important usage of this - at ...


21

~ていく and ~てくる (usually written in kana, since they are such common suffixes) can express both physical movement (such as in 行【い】 ってくる "go and come back") or a continued change in state. Since your question regards the latter usage, I'll restrict my answer to that. To use your examples: 雨【あめ】がやんできた。 The rain [over a period of time up until now] stopped. ...


18

In general, で is where an action is performed and に is the "direction" toward/to/into which the result of an action happens. 部屋の中で泣いています → I'm crying in the room / "The place where I'm at while I'm crying is in the room" 部屋の中に泣いています → I'm crying into the room (meaning like, your tears are flowing from your face into the room). This doesn't make ...


17

You are right that ◯ is used here to mask a letter. There are several related but different reasons as to why one would do this. The comment section already refers to one such use, where certain words are deemed inappropriate (especially on broadcasting), the equivalent of f*ck. But I don't think that explains this one. In this case, I think the intention ...


17

っつ (sometimes つう) is a slang version of という (or an alternate version like といった, depending on the context). It's extremely informal. 冗談【じょうだん】だっつの。 (=冗談だ【じょうだん】といったの。) I said I was joking. [Idiomatically: Chill out, I was just kidding.] 彼【かれ】はやめたいっつってんだから、やめさせてやりゃいいじゃん。 (=彼【かれ】はやめたいといっているんだから、やめさせてやればいいじゃない。) He's saying he wants to quit, so why not ...


17

Your book is correct. When talking about human body temperature, 三十 is often omitted, probably because it is obvious. While there is nothing wrong with saying 37度8分 (37.8 degrees Celsius), it is often abbreviated to 7度8分. Even 37度 (37 degrees Celsius) without a fractional part sometimes becomes 7度. You cannot abbreviate the temperature when it is 40 ...


16

According to page 91 of the 類義語使い分け辞典 [1], quoted here, 一緒に requires that the action take place in the same time and location. 共に does not have this restriction, so the subjects may perform the action (let's say 日本へ行く) at the same time but via a different route, or via the same route but at slightly different times. 「彼女と一緒に日本へ来た」 means that you and she came ...


16

氏名 always refers to a person's full name, both family and given. It also has the connotation of "legal name." 名前 also refers to a person's full name--but it can also mean their given name, in the right context (for instance, "We gave the baby a name" or "I want you to call me by my name"). 名前 can also refer to the names of objects, while 氏名 cannot.


16

Your two examples are incorrect in the “standard” dialect. Some dialects (such as the Gunma dialect and the Saitama dialect) use ん instead of の in a question as in your first example. The second example may also be used in some dialects.


16

ネタ is a semi-slang term that comes from reversing the characters of "seed" タネ. It's a word with many uses, but in all uses it denotes the "seed" of the idea of a work, it's essential core. In cooking, the ネタ of a dish is the key ingredient that makes a particular dish interesting. For example, the ネタ of a piece of sushi is the non-rice part of the sushi. ...


16

The video game Star Fox 64 uses 作戦完了 when you fulfill your mission objective, and 作戦終了 when the mission is over but there's some objective you haven't fulfilled. The English version translates these as "Mission Accomplished" and "Mission Complete", respectively. So perhaps 完了 suggests some kind of fulfillment, and 終了 is more neutral.


15

と and や are used to connect two or more nouns. Most of the time, と can only be used for a fixed number of items like: "キーボードとマウスいる". (we need) keyboard and mouse But や is used when there is a variable/unknown length like: "キーボードやマウス、そしてLANケーブルとかいるかも" (we need) keyboard, mouse and probably LAN cables also. Also や has some sense for ...


15

Japanese has many particles (助詞), and they behave in many varying and different ways, so it's helpful to categorize them before we can see how they can be combined. The semi-traditional classification you'd find in Japanese dictionary usually goes along these lines (note that many particles can fall into more than one of these categories as they have ...


15

According to the Wikipedia article on these two, 以下 and 以上 include the number that precedes them. 50以上 => 50 or more 50以下 => 50 or less If you want to exclude the number on the upper end (instead of 以下) use 未満(みまん). 1000円未満 (less than 1,000 yen, not including 1,000) I had a few different discussions (and taking Ito-san's point below as well) ...


15

成人 is a very specific term and refers to persons who reached the age of 20 and above. It's derived from the definition of the Japanese law, which says "年齢二十歳をもって、成年とする". You used to get drafted and taxed after this age. In today's context, it's the legal drinking/smoking age. 大人 is a more lax term and usually means persons that are older than around 18 ...


15

花見 usually refers to cherry-blossom viewing. However, it can refer to other kind of blossom trees. For example, 梅の花見 refers to plum-blossom viewing, and when it is clear from the context, it can be also referred to simply as 花見. 花見 does not refer to viewing flowers in general. For example, going to view orchids or tulips is not usually considered as 花見.


15

Here are the only two exceptions I can think of where you absolutely can't insert "を": If the construction wasn't based on をする but とする like さっぱりする→◯さっぱりとする ☓さっぱりをする If the construction is "merged" single character する verbs like 動じる/動ずる、案じる/案ずる、命じる/命ずる、失する、課する、罰する etc. However, it's uncommon to just add を in in many cases - so the result may be awkward if ...


14

分 isn't really the "minute's kanji", although that is one of its meanings. I believe the meaning of "part" came first though, and it is used for "minute" in the sense that a minute is a unit or part of time. According to this source, the 分 from 自分 means the same thing as the 分 from from 本分, representing one's capacity/ability, and historically was used to ...


14

未来 and 将来 are pretty similar to each other. 大辞泉 breaks down the differences under the 用法 section of 「将来」 entry (explanation translated): 将来 and 未来 can both be used in situations where you're talking about the time that will come after the present, e.g. 「将来(未来)への夢」 ("dreams for the future") and 「明るい将来(未来)」 ("a bright future"). 「未来」 cannot be used ...


14

What I have been taught in the college is that に is only used for verbs that imply motions which destination/position is required to be specified. For example, if you say "ikimasu" (I'm going), unless already in the context, you need to specify the destination otherwise the sentence does not make sense. So, you use "ni": "asoko ni ikimasu" On the other ...


14

I'd describe it best as a greeting or set phrase used after (any sort of) work has been done. It can be used in a variety of situations: at the end of any shared activity (before leaving home from work, after volunteer work, after group activities like hiking), very much in the sense of "See you..." when greeting somebody who (supposedly) is working or has ...


14

Yes, as a sentence opener, they are mostly identical and definitely interchangeable. As for details and nuances, cursory Googling yielded this: 「ちなみに」は今まで話していた内容に何か付け加えるときや、 その内容と関係があるけど、少し別の方向へ話を発展させるときに使います。 A: この大学には、学部生が500名、大学院生が50名います。 B: ちなみに、そのうち女性は何割ぐらいですか。 ...


14

低い hikui is "short in height" or "low", 短い mijikai is "short in length". 私は背が低い - I'm short (in stature) 天井の低い部屋 - a room with low ceiling 短いスカート - a short skirt 髪を短く切る - cutting one's hair short (Examples from プログレッシブ英和・和英中辞典) A short piece of string cannot be 低い and calling a low bridge 短い would mean the wrong thing.



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