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8

This question is largely about culture but a place where culture and language interact. I work at a university in Japan and both on and off campus, we call each other 苗字 (family name)-先生. There's one or two exceptions where a 高橋 goes by her first name (one of four takahashi's). Japan is a relationally organized society, and the manner in which you know the ...


8

Normally when the Japanese company workers go out for the 飲み会(party) with their Manager or Boss they call them 部長 or 社長 only. In the same way your students will call you as ~先生 even after they graduated/move to higher education. Usually it's difficult for you to call it as 田中さん because you used 田中先生 all the time to call him/her. However if you're friend ...


7

Leo's guess is actually right. For reference, it is enough to go on the wikipedia page of お負け. The meaning originally comes indeed from the fact that the seller is losing something in the bargaining process (from wiki): おまけの語源は「御負け」の文字通り、店員が客との駆け引きに負けて値を下げる行為を指す言葉であったが、のちに商品以外の物品を追加する行為なども言うようになった.


6

Not wrong. The difference is same as in English. Sentence 1: この歌をお聞きになったことがありますか。 Sentence 2: この歌をお聞きになりましたか。 These can be translated to Sentence 1: Have you heard this song? Sentence 2: Did you hear this song? The first one puts emphasis on the experience and the second one on the fact (not so long time ago). It is natural for 先生 to ...


4

I know that オリンピックに向けて is the better choice, but it's hard to explain why... 実用日本語表現辞典 explicitly explains this usage (link): 向けて 「向ける」の連用形。「~に向けて」などと言う場合、後に動詞が続かなくても、「~」を目的や目標と定め、そこに至るために種々の施策を行うことを表すことが多い。 When the target is an intangible event such as オリンピック, 納品日 and 発表, you will hear ~に向けて more often, while ~に向かって would not be entirely wrong....


4

Both "naru hodo" and "wakarimashita" mean "I understand," but there is a difference in the usages and nuances between those two words. "Naru hodo" means "That makes sense to me." and includes the feeling of admiration such as "Wow" or "Oh". A: "Why is this jacket so expensive?" B: "Because it is handmade and moreover it is '60 vintage." A: "...


4

The two sentences in your example have slightly different meanings. Sentence 1: 先生、この歌をお聞きになったことがありますか。 You might say this to ask the teacher if he/she had had the experience of hearing the song in the past. In other words, "Are you familiar with this song?" or "Do you know this song?" Sentence 2: 先生、この歌をお聞きになりましたか。 You might say this to ask the ...


3

I feel this topic-introductory use of 「だったが」 is licensed by the relative clause 「12世紀後半、父への反発心から獅子心王リチャード率いる十字軍遠征に参加した」 modifying the topic word(s) 「(英国貴族ロックスリー卿の息子の)ロビン」. Here, what is being introduced is not merely a person, 「ロビン」, which in itself lacks specific temporal reference, but a person and his action in the past (or "the past of the past"), ...


3

X は Y です Noun, Noun Phrase ⇒ X Adjective, Noun, Noun Phrase ⇒ Y かわいい by itself is an adjective, so it can't go into X ×「かわいいは私です」 - This is not OK If you add の you can make a noun phrase and put that before the noun at Y ○「かわいいのは私です」 - This is OK You can see more information about how の can be used to make noun phrases (nominalization) at ...


2

I like to think that Naruhodo is more like "Oh, I see!" You say it when you have just understood something that you did't understand until this moment. Wakarimashita is simply "Ok" or "Understood". You say it when someone asks you to do some task, or when someone is explaining you something in a more formal situation.


2

Generally speaking, there's difference between 向ける (> 向けて) and 向かう (> 向かって), where the former is transitive "head something for"/"have something face to (somewhere)" and the latter is intransitive "head yourself for"/"face to (somewhere)". But you can use them with abstract goal (i.e. not actual place). In this case, they have a little more nuances: A に向けて ...


2

I can't think of any straightforward uses for お負け as "exaggeration", but it could be used like this: 彼の話にはいつもなんらかのお負けが付いている "There's always a little something more to his stories" This might imply an exaggeration... Sidenote: おまけ can also mean menstrual cycle


2

Atarashii(新しい), Aratana(新たな)and Aratanaru(新たなる)are all translated to "new". But, 新たなる is an exaggerated version of 新たな. In general, you don't use 新たなる in daily conversations. It could be appeared in below contexts; Last night's his live performance marked a new chapter in the history of Hip Hop. 新たなる1ページを刻んだ。 As a company slogan, "新たなる挑戦" as in a ...


2

I don't think there is a special meaning for 向き合う in a sport or romantic context. Specifically, it doesn't mean "to connect". If you know a sentence where it seems to mean such a thing, please share that sentence so we can explain better. 向き合う just means "to face", and the object can be: another person, face-to-face (neutrally): 彼女に向き合って座る, 向き合って一礼する (...


2

It's worth noting that ‑zuru forms are historically older than the ‑jiru forms. This might account for the sense l'électeur notes, that the ‑jiru forms come across as "lighter", "less literary", "less formal", etc. How the forms developed Historically, there are many terms that started out as compounds, where a noun or a borrowing ...


2

I think you are a bit confused about the nature of each of the particles you are discussing. は can be called the "topic marker", and is the particle that introduces (or marks) the topic being discussed. Many times this corresponds to what in English is called the "subject", although this is not always true (since I want to keep the discussion as basic as ...


2

Distinctly Visible Eye Later in the article they say 目がくっきりしていて, "(the hurricane's) eye is distinctly visible." If you look up くっきり at eg jisho.org,you will see entries like clear, sharp, distinct relating to vision, especially contrast/clarity. In other words, the title and article focus on how much the eye stands out relative to the hurricane, and what ...


2

We say the center of the typhoon as 台風の目(eye of typhoon) because it looks like eye. The clearer the eye show the stronger the stream is. How about "the eye of typhoon shows clearly"?


1

As a follow-up answer to this question, I found the following research paper from 東京が国語大学 (TUFS) which goes into great detail about the differences in usage for 「に向けて」,「に向かって」and「を目指して」: http://repository.tufs.ac.jp/bitstream/10108/20982/1/jlc031003.pdf If someone could put this info into digest form in English, that would be great.


1

If you do a very direct translation... きむらさんは・さくらだいがくの・がくせい・です。 as for Kimura-san / Sakura University's / student / (he) is きむらさんの・せんこうは・にほんご・です。 as for Kimura-san's major / Japanese Language / (it) is 「は」takes priority over「の」in the second example. I think you are correct in parsing the first example's usage of「さくらだいがくのがくせい」as "Sakura ...


1

Interchangeable. Just a minor difference in pronunciation. Perhaps it's an [音便]{おんびん} thing


1

Although, I think I do understand the meaning of it In one hour before 8:30 am, when the reservations started No, this sentence means "By 8:30 AM, which is an hour before the registration started, ...". The actual registration starts at 9:30, which is written at the end of the article. Here, の is used as the apposition marker. 友達の田中さん ...


1

I've seen it a lot on television shows to represent "something", probably like your placeholder you mentioned and also as censorship for words on the subtitle-like テロップ. e.g. 100人に聞いた[この夏、◯◯をしたい!!] TOP3ランキング!!! e.g. う◯こ



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