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3

Short answer: Verbs like 切れる can have two meanings, the potential one or the intransitive one. You determine by context. 上司が切れた In this case, it is clear the boss got mad. It could also be written as キレた. この紐、切れる? Here, it should be clear the person is asking "Can this string be cut?". This meaning can also be written as 〜切ることができる.


7

There's a difference between intransitive and indirect. Transitivity (from Latin "transire", "to go across") basically (with exceptions, probably) implies the subject carrying out an action on an object that is generally distinct from the subject. Sure, you can select 自分 as the object to make the action reflexive, but in general you are able to select ...


0

I agree with Takahiro's comment above and naruto's answer about 捕まった being the more natural way of saying it. 捕まえられる does work as well though and I'm sure you do hear it from time to time. I think this may be a case of the way that Japanese verbs work generating two ways of saying more or less the same thing. 「つかみ敢{あ}ふ」の転か tsukam + a + e + ru In ...


5

Both sentences are correct and the same in meaning, but sentence B is far more common and sounds natural. For some reason, some Japanese verbs intrinsically have passive meanings, and they are used more commonly than the transitive verb + ~れる/られる version. See the following question for the list of such verbs. Other uses of the combined particle には This ...



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