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I guess we cannot directly translate English into Japanese and vice-versa. I think that is a common mistake made by a lot of English speakers. You have to think in Japanese instead. Let me use some of your examples and provide some examples: ドアを開けている。 ドアが開いている。 犬が死んでいる。 飛行機が飛んでいる。 彼が笑っている。 As a general guide, the thinking process for te-iru forms is ...


毎日テレビを見ている is conscious that you are keeping the habit so far but could quit it soon or some time. On the other hand, 毎日テレビを見る is not conscious of that. And, 私は本を読む depends on contexts.


Using the present tense in the subordinate clause: 私は日本に行くとき、ラジオを買います。 This would mean 'I (will) buy a radio when I am going to Japan'. You'll probably buy the radio right before you fly to Japan. The past tense for this would be: 私は日本に行くとき、ラジオを買いました。 This means something like 'I bought a radio when I was going to Japan.' Note that the tense ...


You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)

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