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10

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


7

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying 【〜しまう】...


5

"Is there a list mapping each English tense to Japanese one?" There is a simple answer to this question: No. Unrelated languages, like English (or any other Indo-European language) and Japanese do not have corresponding sets of grammar functions, so it is not possible in any meaningful way to map one to the other. It may sound hard, but you have to learn ...


5

The key here is the word order. The neutral order is “昨日肉まんを食べました”. By saying it in the order “昨日食べたのは肉まん[です/でした]”, you are already conveying a contrastive nuance. That is to say, you ate 肉まん and not something else. です/でした tends to have implications on this contrastive nuance: 昨日食べたのは肉まんです。ラーメンではなくて。 It was nikuman that I ate yesterday. Not ramen. ...


5

~madeni (~までに) Yes, as you said, it's that simple - append "~までに" to the time you want to specify. But! Since this is used in future perfect, it's kinda weird to say までに. We say までには (madeniwa.) には is a combination of case particle に and engagement particle は. に indicates the time the action ends (or starts,) and は indicates the topic (or important point)...


5

The で is definition #5 in デジタル大辞泉: 「5 動作・作用の行われる状態を表す。『みんなで研究する』『笑顔であいさつする』」 (indicates how an action is performed. "study together with everyone" "greet with a smile"). So 「糸井さんと村上さんとで」 is literally like "with Itoi-san and Murakami-san together", and 「糸井さんと村上さんとで・・・出してられる」 is saying "Itoi-san and Murakami-san published together / collaborated / co-...


5

I think this is a bit tricky. In short: you are getting it right, but in this particular example he doesn't necessarily think it is no longer interesting: his comment was probably made on something that had finished earlier. There's no tense agreement in Japanese, so we can think of these two pairs Robert さんはおもしろいといっています。 -> Robert さんはおもしろいといっていました。 ...


4

It's not prohibited, but it never ever means what past tense in English does. Tense in Japanese subordinate clause is (basically) relative to main clause, so if you bought a book and the book was heavy, you just have to say 重い本を買いました. 重かった本を買いました suggests the book was heavy before you bought it. But there rarely are books that being sometimes heavy, ...


4

This sentence is unnatural. "I bought a book that was heavy" is translated as "重い本を買いました". Sequence of tenses isn't necessary in Japanese. For example, "I read an interesting book yesterday" is translated as "私は昨日、面白い本を読みました".


4

(だったら means "if it is, then".) さ as in だったらさ is never a sentence ending particle. So it's always a filler. さ as a sentence ender can appear (1) after a terminal form of verbs or adjectives, and (2) after a noun in the position of the predicate. e.g. (1) なんとか なるさ。 (2) (私は)探偵さ。


4

The same reason that in English you can say 'like you say'. If someone says 'I had maabou doufu last night and it was amazingly delicious', and some time later you decide to try it yourself and agree, you might tell them 「君の言ったとおりだ」. 'It's just like you told me (some time ago)' - you're referring to a specific instance of them telling you. If you're both ...


4

1. I guess what he said was not "の" but "も". あなたも見ましたよね You saw it, too, didn't you? 2. I guess that police man wanted to ignore him absolutely. In the case of common conversation: (私はそれを)見なかった。[何]{なに}があった? I didn't see it. What's happened? In the case of 見ていない and 見えていない, police man will not ask him at all. (私はなにも)見えていない。早く出ていって! I ...


3

The 連用形{れんようけい} ("connecting form") of an -i adjective + verbal auxiliary た which indicates the past tense is かった like in 面{おも}白{しろ}かった. The 連用形{れんようけい} of a -na adjective + verbal auxiliary た which indicates past tense is だった like in 有名{ゆうめい}だった. And The 連用形{れんようけい} of verbal auxiliary だ which means "is" (i.e. it marks the predicate) + verbal auxiliary た ...


3

What you have found is not the past -た form, but the -たい form. It is attached to the 連用形 "i-form" (a.k.a. the infinitive) and indicates that you want to do something. Thus, 「行きたい」 means "want to go". 兄ちゃんも行きたいって言ってたし。 Brother said he wants to go, too.


3

No, these two sentences are different, and you have to use the first sentence in 99% of cases. The first one is easy: このネックレスは買ったんですか。 Is this necklace what you bought? / Did you (really) buy this necklace? The second one is difficult: このネックレスは買うんでしたか。 Is this necklace what you would buy (instead of just looking or borrowing)? Are you ...


3

As Toshihiko wrote, both A and B are correct sentences in Japanese. However, they are not always interchangeable. For example, suppose that you ate nikuman yesterday, but today your coworker asked you: 昨日カレーまんを食べていましたよね。どこで買ったんですか? You were eating karēman (curry-flavored pork bun) yesterday. Where did you buy it? You can say (A) いいえ、昨日食べたのは肉まんです in ...


3

In short, できたはず or できるはずだった would imply you failed it. e.g. どうしてやらなかったのだろう、やればできたはずだ。 Why didn't I do it? I could have done it if I had tried. 昨日までにできるはずだった。しかし、今日までかかってしまった。 It should have been made by yesterday. But it took till today. And, how you consider the できるはずだ a general statement seems apt. As for できたはずだ, depending on intonation, you can ...


3

Yes, you are very correct. ~ないと is a very common usage for hypothetical future tense. I would like to just point out that in your first past tense that the "if" is actually implied by なかったら in the prior phrase, not なかった in the second, like so: 彼の支援がなかったら、ここまで進んでなかったでしょう。 and my translation If it were not for his support, we probably would not have ...


3

このページを見ると、 約束・予定されている用事の内容、時間の用途などを説明するとき動詞の辞書形で修飾節を作る。 とありますので、このルールは、「『約束・予定されている用事の内容、時間の用途』やそれに準ずる内容のことをいう場合には辞書形を使いなさい」ということだと思います。 以下の文章は全部おかしいですか。Are these wrong? 朝ごはんを 食べた 時間 映画を 見た 約束 市役所へ 行った 用事 「朝ご飯を食べた時間」は、おかしくないと思います。この場合は、「時間の用途」(the time for doing some activity) ではなく、「その行動をする時間」(the time when an action takes place) ...


2

過去のことを話す場合は、埋め込み表現は主節の動詞の時点を基準にして、 「た」を使ったら、過去の過去 「する」や「しようとする」などだったら、同じ過去の時点のことや過去から見た未来のこと っていうことですよね? そうです。 埋め込み表現のテンスは主節の動詞によって変化するでしょう?(いわゆる相対テンス?) そうです。 -「相対テンス(Relative Tense)」-> The time of main sentence -「絶対テンス(Absolute Tense)」-> The time of speech 埋め込み表現のテンスは、主節(main clause)/主文{しゅぶん}(main sentence)の出来事が起こった時点(at the ...


2

1.「李{リ}さんが呼{よ}んでいたのが聞{き}こえましたか。 」 2.「李さんが呼んでいるのが聞こえましたか。 」 Both sentences are correct and neither one is any better than the other. Why? Because the "main" verb of each sentence is 「聞こえました」 and that is the verb that determines the tense of each sentence, which is the past for both. The tense used with 「呼ぶ」, in this context, is of little importance ...


2

They are all correct, and you should use it depending on what you want to say. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV has been broken (and is currently out of order). テレビが壊れているから、見られていないんです。 We haven't been able to watch it because the TV has been broken. テレビが壊れるから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV will be broken (if we watch it). ...


2

First of all the tense in Japanese is different from English, and the verbal auxiliary た represents past and completion. As your teacher says, "来月、富士山に行った時、富士山を見たいです" is natural. I think this た doesn't mean "past" but "completion". This た can be used for a future thing. For example, 来週の金曜日に、仕事が終わったら、お酒を飲みましょう (Let's drink after work next Friday).


2

The past-tense ~た時 pattern is used when the action is completed relative to the main clause. The present-tense ~る時 pattern is used when the action has not yet been completed relative to the main clause. A common example to illustrate the difference: 日本に行くとき、カメラを買った。 On the way to Japan, I bought a camera. (The action of "going" isn't complete yet.) ...


2

These verbs are generally used in the past tense possibly through connotation of a static, perfective state. If you want to emphasize a present imperfective aspect, such as when expressing a subjective opinion that you just came up with that very moment, you can use 優れている. In this sense you can even use 優れていた if it happened in the past. バルサに敗れたシメオネ、「...


2

Formally, you use 「ナニナニと言{い}いました。」. This is the original/basic one and I think you know it. 部長{ぶちょう}はそのパソコンを使わない{つかわない}と言いました。 Manager said don't use that PC. In order to make a quote to be sounds more like a quote, you can use って instead of と, like「ナニナニって言いました」 / ナニナニって言いました」 As you said about drama, friends and friends don't talk formally, it will ...


2

Here are my interpretations of the four sentences, in the listed order. (1) If [you] (are going to) buy a tape recorder, [I] expect [them] to give [you] tapes. (Statement of expected outcome. Here I would interpret the tapes to come with the recorder.) (2) If [you] bought a tape recorder, [I] expect [them] to give [you] tapes. (Statement of expected ...


2

nouns だった (was) is the past tense of だ (to be). 卵{たまご}だ (it is an egg), 卵{たまご}だった (it was an egg). There are two kinds of adjectives in Japanese the i-adjectives and the na-adjectives. i-adjectives i-adjectives all end in い. e.g. 面白{おもしろ}い (to be fun), 楽{たの}しい (to be interesting), 速{はや}い (to be fast). To make these adjectives past tense we remove the ...


2

The negative past forms are: なかった なかったです ありませんでした In 1 and 2, the tense change is already realised by ない→なかった, and です just acts as a helper to add politeness. なかったでした does not exist because です will not inflect to show tense since it's just a politeness helper here. In 3, the tense change is realised by でした, but note that in the case of present tense, ...


1

My translation would be: Well now, since we've come all this way, how about going to buy one (bathing suit)? Anyway, Yamada needs one, right? Without reading the entire comic in your link, I am guessing that getting to the beach was kind of a journey. In this case せっかくだから means something like "since we've already done this difficult thing" or ...



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