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9

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


5

To ask about the difference between A and B, you could say: A と B の違{ちが}いは何{なん}ですか? Here, we put two nouns together with と, giving us the larger noun phrase AとB. We want to join this to the noun 違い "difference", so we use the genitive particle の. Literal translation doesn't work very well between English and Japanese; our phrase is literally close to ...


4

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of ...


4

Present 安ければ買います Has this got two opposing meanings, or is it simple less-specific (or specific in another way) compared to English? We could express the meaning as: when cheap → buy If we turn to the English expressions, we find they both include this basic meaning: counter-factual: when cheap → buy; but alas it's not cheap unfortunately ...


4

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (attributive form) of the retrospective auxiliary verb 「き」. 連体形 modifies nouns (頃 in this case). Even though 「き」 is a Classical auxiliary verb, it is listed in any medium-sized dictionary of Modern Japanese because it is still used today in creative writing where the author's aesthetic preference calls for the old-fashioned and/or ...


3

No, these two sentences are different, and you have to use the first sentence in 99% of cases. The first one is easy: このネックレスは買ったんですか。 Is this necklace what you bought? / Did you (really) buy this necklace? The second one is difficult: このネックレスは買うんでしたか。 Is this necklace what you would buy (instead of just looking or borrowing)? Are you ...


3

It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


3

Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)


3

The し is the rentai-kei (attributive) form of the past auxiliary き in classical Japanese. http://www.hello-school.net/haroajapa009002.htm 生まれし頃(literary)→生まれた頃(modern)  


3

To my understanding as a native speaker, in all of the three examples, sentence (1) is written from the author's perspective, and sentence (2) is written from the perspective of a character in the story. The switching of the perspectives is in fact, in these examples, is signalled by the change of the tenses. The sentences in Example 24 could be written in ...


3

You are right that it's in disagreement with itself tense-wise, and that is what makes it ungrammatical. ✗ 電車に乗ったときは、白線の内側でお待ちください。 ✗ "When you got on the train, please wait on the inside of the white lines." 電車に乗るときは、白線の内側でお待ちください。 "When you get on the train, please wait on the inside of the white lines." As seen by these translations, if you ...


2

They are all correct, and you should use it depending on what you want to say. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV has been broken (and is currently out of order). テレビが壊れているから、見られていないんです。 We haven't been able to watch it because the TV has been broken. テレビが壊れるから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV will be broken (if we watch it). ...


2

I would say : instead of presenting it as a simple given event, he summarizes the beginning of the match, kind of headlining what happened during this opening, making it last longer in the readers mind. So you could say it is a historic present.


2

Subtitles don't translate directly, word-to-word or form-to-form. 落ちる here is grammatically present tense, but semantically it can be seen as future. Because there is no "real" future tense in Japanese. We (are going to) fall!


2

Based on what I've seen in the video: In this scene, she utters it on the plane. Japanese 落ちる usually implies the result of falling, so in this case she literally says: "We (our planes) are going to crash!" Maybe the translator wanted to make a more liberal translation. By the way, the same line is repeated by another woman immediately after it. It sounds ...


2

The difference between 好きでした and 好きです is somewhat subtle. It depends on whether or not the action/event/whatever being described is a one time event or an ongoing action. For example, If you liked a concert you would probably say 好きでした (or, if you wanted to sound even more natural, 面白{おもしろ}かった -- It was interesting). If you like studying Japanese, you would ...


2

I also believe you can say it like so: AとBは どう違{ちが}うの? Or "As for A and B, how are they different?


2

1.「李{リ}さんが呼{よ}んでいたのが聞{き}こえましたか。 」 2.「李さんが呼んでいるのが聞こえましたか。 」 Both sentences are correct and neither one is any better than the other. Why? Because the "main" verb of each sentence is 「聞こえました」 and that is the verb that determines the tense of each sentence, which is the past for both. The tense used with 「呼ぶ」, in this context, is of little ...


2

You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


1

No. If you want it to be past, you will change the other verb into past and leave んです/んだ as it is. Only your first one is grammatical. However, it is technically possible to have んだった, but only in the -ら conditional form: んだったら. You wouldn't see it at the end of a sentence.


1

This is not a real answer but it is way to long for a comment. I translated to the best I can, the part I suggested in my comment to the original question. Since I think that the whole part about 「V-ている」 could be useful to a great deal of people I post this answer as a community wiki, if somebody wants to help me provide a full translation of the part ...


1

I don't understand why you think "長い山道を clearly leave only a continuous interpretation possible". As for the story evolving things that happened on his way home, it doesn't necessarily have to progress according to the exact temporal order, does it? And I don't think it'd be that unnatural to use 帰った even if you haven't fully reached home. 帰っていました can be ...


1

I've found an explanation on how tense switching works here: A part of a past event (often a state rather than an action) can be described using the nonpast tense, if the writer perceives it to be relatively unimportant circumstantial information that has no direct bearing upon the major story line. Just in case, I've scanned the relevant bits that ...


1

Just an addition to current answers/comments. It could also be a Hokkaido thing. When I lived and worked in Sapporo, some people (mostly 50 and older) would use a similar past tense. For e.g., I might get a phone call where the other person might say "もしもし、佐藤でした" instead of "もしもし、佐藤です" you might find more details by googling "北海道弁 過去形"


1

私は泣いていた人に会った。 I met a person, who, sometime before [or even during] our meeting, was crying. In regards to your question on context and interpretation, To me #2 is more plausible because: 一緒に旅行した時 留学している友達に会ったじゃない 時 here is "The time when we were studying abroad together" Thus, the rest of the sentence takes place in that time-frame. The ...


1

Both interpretations are possible. But the former is natural in this context. So, the answer is yes.


1

間 stands for "while," "during." So it stands to reason that you use it with a verb indicating some duration, as in 居る間, 出かけている間 (= while staying, while staying out). I would not say 出かける間, as I doubt 出かける is an action with duration. * Added the 21st June, 2015 * I have no ideal why someone downvoted my answer. I would like to stress that 出かける means ...


1

Yes, you can use 出かける間 from the moment when you try to leave home, to the moment when you get out. In addition, you can still use 出かけている間 for the same situation. The action in the main clause is done during that moment. e.g. 私がちょうど出かける間にネコに家に入られたようだ。(By the way, what the speaker in the first sentence is whining for, regaring taking picture?)


1

毎日テレビを見ている is conscious that you are keeping the habit so far but could quit it soon or some time. On the other hand, 毎日テレビを見る is not conscious of that. And, 私は本を読む depends on contexts.


1

Using the present tense in the subordinate clause: 私は日本に行くとき、ラジオを買います。 This would mean 'I (will) buy a radio when I am going to Japan'. You'll probably buy the radio right before you fly to Japan. The past tense for this would be: 私は日本に行くとき、ラジオを買いました。 This means something like 'I bought a radio when I was going to Japan.' Note that the tense ...



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