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10

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


7

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying ...


5

"Is there a list mapping each English tense to Japanese one?" There is a simple answer to this question: No. Unrelated languages, like English (or any other Indo-European language) and Japanese do not have corresponding sets of grammar functions, so it is not possible in any meaningful way to map one to the other. It may sound hard, but you have to ...


5

The key here is the word order. The neutral order is “昨日肉まんを食べました”. By saying it in the order “昨日食べたのは肉まん[です/でした]”, you are already conveying a contrastive nuance. That is to say, you ate 肉まん and not something else. です/でした tends to have implications on this contrastive nuance: 昨日食べたのは肉まんです。ラーメンではなくて。 It was nikuman that I ate yesterday. Not ramen. ...


5

Present 安ければ買います Has this got two opposing meanings, or is it simple less-specific (or specific in another way) compared to English? We could express the meaning as: when cheap → buy If we turn to the English expressions, we find they both include this basic meaning: counter-factual: when cheap → buy; but alas it's not cheap unfortunately ...


4

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (attributive form) of the retrospective auxiliary verb 「き」. 連体形 modifies nouns (頃 in this case). Even though 「き」 is a Classical auxiliary verb, it is listed in any medium-sized dictionary of Modern Japanese because it is still used today in creative writing where the author's aesthetic preference calls for the old-fashioned and/or ...


4

(だったら means "if it is, then".) さ as in だったらさ is never a sentence ending particle. So it's always a filler. さ as a sentence ender can appear (1) after a terminal form of verbs or adjectives, and (2) after a noun in the position of the predicate. e.g. (1) なんとか なるさ。 (2) (私は)探偵さ。


4

This sentence is unnatural. "I bought a book that was heavy" is translated as "重い本を買いました". Sequence of tenses isn't necessary in Japanese. For example, "I read an interesting book yesterday" is translated as "私は昨日、面白い本を読みました".


4

It's not prohibited, but it never ever means what past tense in English does. Tense in Japanese subordinate clause is (basically) relative to main clause, so if you bought a book and the book was heavy, you just have to say 重い本を買いました. 重かった本を買いました suggests the book was heavy before you bought it. But there rarely are books that being sometimes heavy, ...


3

No, these two sentences are different, and you have to use the first sentence in 99% of cases. The first one is easy: このネックレスは買ったんですか。 Is this necklace what you bought? / Did you (really) buy this necklace? The second one is difficult: このネックレスは買うんでしたか。 Is this necklace what you would buy (instead of just looking or borrowing)? Are you ...


3

As Toshihiko wrote, both A and B are correct sentences in Japanese. However, they are not always interchangeable. For example, suppose that you ate nikuman yesterday, but today your coworker asked you: 昨日カレーまんを食べていましたよね。どこで買ったんですか? You were eating karēman (curry-flavored pork bun) yesterday. Where did you buy it? You can say (A) いいえ、昨日食べたのは肉まんです in ...


3

In short, できたはず or できるはずだった would imply you failed it. e.g. どうしてやらなかったのだろう、やればできたはずだ。 Why didn't I do it? I could have done it if I had tried. 昨日までにできるはずだった。しかし、今日までかかってしまった。 It should have been made by yesterday. But it took till today. And, how you consider the できるはずだ a general statement seems apt. As for できたはずだ, depending on intonation, you can ...


3

The し is the rentai-kei (attributive) form of the past auxiliary き in classical Japanese. http://www.hello-school.net/haroajapa009002.htm 生まれし頃(literary)→生まれた頃(modern)  


3

It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


3

Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)


3

What you have found is not the past -た form, but the -たい form. It is attached to the 連用形 "i-form" (a.k.a. the infinitive) and indicates that you want to do something. Thus, 「行きたい」 means "want to go". 兄ちゃんも行きたいって言ってたし。 Brother said he wants to go, too.


2

This rhetoric is called 史的現在, or historical present, which basically makes the sentence more vivid, and gives the feeling as if the reader were in the place. In particular, you can see this commonly happen in sport news. I'm not quite sure how frequently this happens in the English literature, but I don't call it a Japanese-only phenomenon. Related ...


2

I would say : instead of presenting it as a simple given event, he summarizes the beginning of the match, kind of headlining what happened during this opening, making it last longer in the readers mind. So you could say it is a historic present.


2

1.「李{リ}さんが呼{よ}んでいたのが聞{き}こえましたか。 」 2.「李さんが呼んでいるのが聞こえましたか。 」 Both sentences are correct and neither one is any better than the other. Why? Because the "main" verb of each sentence is 「聞こえました」 and that is the verb that determines the tense of each sentence, which is the past for both. The tense used with 「呼ぶ」, in this context, is of little ...


2

You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


2

They are all correct, and you should use it depending on what you want to say. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV has been broken (and is currently out of order). テレビが壊れているから、見られていないんです。 We haven't been able to watch it because the TV has been broken. テレビが壊れるから、見られないんです。 We can't watch it because the TV will be broken (if we watch it). ...


2

These verbs are generally used in the past tense possibly through connotation of a static, perfective state. If you want to emphasize a present imperfective aspect, such as when expressing a subjective opinion that you just came up with that very moment, you can use 優れている. In this sense you can even use 優れていた if it happened in the past. ...


2

過去のことを話す場合は、埋め込み表現は主節の動詞の時点を基準にして、 「た」を使ったら、過去の過去 「する」や「しようとする」などだったら、同じ過去の時点のことや過去から見た未来のこと っていうことですよね? そうです。 埋め込み表現のテンスは主節の動詞によって変化するでしょう?(いわゆる相対テンス?) そうです。 -「相対テンス(Relative Tense)」-> The time of main sentence -「絶対テンス(Absolute Tense)」-> The time of speech 埋め込み表現のテンスは、主節(main clause)/主文{しゅぶん}(main ...


2

Formally, you use 「ナニナニと言{い}いました。」. This is the original/basic one and I think you know it. 部長{ぶちょう}はそのパソコンを使わない{つかわない}と言いました。 Manager said don't use that PC. In order to make a quote to be sounds more like a quote, you can use って instead of と, like「ナニナニって言いました」 / ナニナニって言いました」 As you said about drama, friends and friends don't talk formally, it will ...


2

Here are my interpretations of the four sentences, in the listed order. (1) If [you] (are going to) buy a tape recorder, [I] expect [them] to give [you] tapes. (Statement of expected outcome. Here I would interpret the tapes to come with the recorder.) (2) If [you] bought a tape recorder, [I] expect [them] to give [you] tapes. (Statement of expected ...


2

First of all the tense in Japanese is different from English, and the verbal auxiliary た represents past and completion. As your teacher says, "来月、富士山に行った時、富士山を見たいです" is natural. I think this た doesn't mean "past" but "completion". This た can be used for a future thing. For example, 来週の金曜日に、仕事が終わったら、お酒を飲みましょう (Let's drink after work next Friday).


1

As a native speaker, and scanning through actual usages of it online, my feeling is that 侮れなかった is most often used when recounting a past experience in which the thing was perceived to be formidable. So, what is in the past is the time of perceiving it to be formidable. It's interesting because I think this suggests 侮れない is chiefly a perception dependent on ...


1

Both A and B in Japanese are correct, the same fact as A' in English. B' is incorrect English. Do you want to know about English?


1

Both is past tense. The former is a question the latter is an answer (he did it). This topic is similar to this question: のだから vs のだ (んだから vs んだ)


1

No. If you want it to be past, you will change the other verb into past and leave んです/んだ as it is. Only your first one is grammatical. However, it is technically possible to have んだった, but only in the -ら conditional form: んだったら. You wouldn't see it at the end of a sentence.



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