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20

逃げたくなった is: 逃げる = "to flee", in its stem form (連用形) → 逃げ ~たい = the suffix that expresses wanting to do, conjugated to ~たく (again, the 連用形) なる = "to become", in past tense → なった So this means something to the effect of "it became the case that he wanted to get away". For the sentence as a whole, I would offer a translation like "he began to want to get ...


10

逃げたくなった is the past tense form of 逃げ+たく+なる which consists of 動詞「逃げる」 + 助動詞「たい」 + 動詞「なる」. 逃げ >> 連用形(continuative form) of 逃げる >> run away たく >> 連用形(continuative form) of the volitional たい >> want to なった >> the past tense form of なる(成る) >> become So it's like "became to want to run away", i.e. "started to feel like running away".


8

If you're sure you'll die and I'll read your letter after your death, then you'd say: あなたがこの手紙を読むころには、私はもう死んでいるでしょう。 あなたがこの手紙を読んでいるころには、私はもう死んでいるでしょう。 (Literally: I will already be dead when you read this letter.) If I won't read your letter if you survive, then you'd say: あなたがこの手紙を読んでいるということは、私はもう死んでいるということでしょう。 ...


6

You have actually picked two good examples to explain an odd corner of Japanese. 〜と思う and 〜ことにする both are "state-change" verbs regarding things that happen in people's heads. These sorts of verbs have rules. 〜と思う Plain: State-change (私は)ジョンが大丈夫だと思う。 Lit. "I just had the thought that Jon is okay." "I think that Jon is okay." 〜ている: Stative ...


5

To ask about the difference between A and B, you could say: A と B の違{ちが}いは何{なん}ですか? Here, we put two nouns together with と, giving us the larger noun phrase AとB. We want to join this to the noun 違い "difference", so we use the genitive particle の. Literal translation doesn't work very well between English and Japanese; our phrase is literally close to ...


5

First, what sounds natural in English is of no relevance to what sounds natural in Japanese as the two languages are completely unrelated. This "advertisement" is a creation of Japan Tabacco Inc., which is a private company; therefore, it is not a public announcement (at least by the Japanese standards). Since it is advertisement, it can have more ...


4

There are a couple issues here. First off, the 次 here is about the next 役員 or board / committee member, not about the next meeting. 次の役員が決まらなくて the next board member(s) が not decided 随分長く掛かりました it [the meeting] took a really long time So basically, the man is saying that the last meeting (that the woman mentions) took a really long time, ...


4

You are right that it's in disagreement with itself tense-wise, and that is what makes it ungrammatical. ✗ 電車に乗ったときは、白線の内側でお待ちください。 ✗ "When you got on the train, please wait on the inside of the white lines." 電車に乗るときは、白線の内側でお待ちください。 "When you get on the train, please wait on the inside of the white lines." As seen by these translations, if you ...


3

To my understanding as a native speaker, in all of the three examples, sentence (1) is written from the author's perspective, and sentence (2) is written from the perspective of a character in the story. The switching of the perspectives is in fact, in these examples, is signalled by the change of the tenses. The sentences in Example 24 could be written in ...


3

ている and てある both have one possible meaning of resultant state, but the past form of a verb on its own doesn't. In your example with 作った and 作ってある, 作った only means that food was made. The action took place, and the details of what happened after the completion of that action are not explained. Furthermore, the subject of this will be the person or whatever ...


3

It sounds like you already have the correct understanding, and you're just looking for confirmation/better motivation to believe what you suspect to be true. For attributive verbs, the present progressive (~している) is considered informal, and is therefore forced to be recast as the plain form (~する). So you're essentially correct -- in a colloquial/informal ...


3

聞いてた sounds like "Are you listening?" 聞いた is closer to "Did you hear about that?"


3

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of ...


2

Temporal sequencing in Japanese is quite complicated so to answer your question I am going to simplify the sentence, if I may, to: If you have received this letter then I have (already) been killed in the war. (This allows me to avoid questions about the use of 〜ている and resultant state verbs which is also complicated and not the main point of your ...


2

We don't have a perfect parallel structure in English. The deciding is not in the future tense even though the action that follows is. I would go with: I will go to Japan. At least for me, the most common type of the present tense にする that I hear is for ordering food. らーめんにします。 = I will have the ramen. In both cases, I take will not to be ...


2

I also believe you can say it like so: AとBは どう違{ちが}うの? Or "As for A and B, how are they different?


2

あなたが映画を見ているあいだ、私は買い物に行きます。 みんなが遊んでいるあいだ、私は働いています。 Both sentences are perfectly standard. The structure あいだ(に), is indeed not bound to being used with the past tense.


2

1)「昼ごはんを作った/作りました。」= "I/Someone cooked lunch." ↑ Plain past. 2)「昼ごはんを作っていた/作っていました。」= "I/Someone was cooking lunch." ↑ Past progressive. 3)「昼ごはんを作っている/作っています。」 = "I/Someone is cooking lunch." ↑ Present progressive. 4)「昼ごはんを作ってある/作ってあります。」 = "I/Someone cooked lunch (some time ago and it is ready to eat.) " ↑ Resultant state. Lunch has ...



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