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It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)


You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


毎日テレビを見ている is conscious that you are keeping the habit so far but could quit it soon or some time. On the other hand, 毎日テレビを見る is not conscious of that. And, 私は本を読む depends on contexts.

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