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3

No, these two sentences are different, and you have to use the first sentence in 99% of cases. The first one is easy: このネックレスは買ったんですか。 Is this necklace what you bought? / Did you (really) buy this necklace? The second one is difficult: このネックレスは買うんでしたか。 Is this necklace what you would buy (instead of just looking or borrowing)? Are you ...


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1.「李{リ}さんが呼{よ}んでいたのが聞{き}こえましたか。 」 2.「李さんが呼んでいるのが聞こえましたか。 」 Both sentences are correct and neither one is any better than the other. Why? Because the "main" verb of each sentence is 「聞こえました」 and that is the verb that determines the tense of each sentence, which is the past for both. The tense used with 「呼ぶ」, in this context, is of little ...


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No. If you want it to be past, you will change the other verb into past and leave んです/んだ as it is. Only your first one is grammatical. However, it is technically possible to have んだった, but only in the -ら conditional form: んだったら. You wouldn't see it at the end of a sentence.


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This is not a real answer but it is way to long for a comment. I translated to the best I can, the part I suggested in my comment to the original question. Since I think that the whole part about 「V-ている」 could be useful to a great deal of people I post this answer as a community wiki, if somebody wants to help me provide a full translation of the part ...


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I don't understand why you think "長い山道を clearly leave only a continuous interpretation possible". As for the story evolving things that happened on his way home, it doesn't necessarily have to progress according to the exact temporal order, does it? And I don't think it'd be that unnatural to use 帰った even if you haven't fully reached home. 帰っていました can be ...



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