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4

Roughly speaking, 話す is close to talk or speak, and 言う is close to say. Sometimes they can be used interchangeably (like in your 千葉県の男性 example), but sometimes they are not. Saying just one word or two is not 話す. 話す is used with a relatively longer story, speech, opinion, lecture, etc. 話す is rarely used without physical vocals. You can safely use 言う for ...


4

いて is the casual imperative of いる (the same as the て-form). So it's now down to what つかまえている means. The て-form of a verb plus いる can have many different translations (and I'm sure you will find many applicable questions on Stack Enchange). I will attempt to distill it to its most general sense. The て-form plus いる conveys the state that the subject is in ...


3

That いて is the te-form of the subsidiary verb いる, followed by て. This subsidiary verb adds the meaning of "keep ~ing" in this case, since 捕まえる is a verb that describes an action. When is Vている the continuation of action and when is it the continuation of state? And a te-form at the end of a sentence can be a casual request. Using て form at the end of ...



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