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19

しとく comes from しておく, which in turn comes from して置く. The literal translation of して置く would be, "do it, and then put [the results]". Basically it describes the act of doing something and storing the result of that so that when that result becomes useful, you can use it. EDIT: This literal meaning changed overtime (I presume) and しておく became to mean "do ...


18

The key to understanding this difference in aspect (not tense) lies in knowing what kind of verb we're dealing with. For verbs that describe actions (食【た】べる, 走【はし】る, etc) and events (降【ふ】る, 吹【ふ】く, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of an action. For verbs that describe changes in state (死【し】ぬ, 割【わ】れる, 溶【と】ける, etc), ~ている shows the continuation of a state. ...


17

~ていく and ~てくる (usually written in kana, since they are such common suffixes) can express both physical movement (such as in 行【い】 ってくる "go and come back") or a continued change in state. Since your question regards the latter usage, I'll restrict my answer to that. To use your examples: 雨【あめ】がやんできた。 The rain [over a period of time up until now] stopped. ...


13

っつ (sometimes つう) is a slang version of という (or an alternate version like といった, depending on the context). It's extremely informal. 冗談【じょうだん】だっつの。 (=冗談だ【じょうだん】といったの。) I said I was joking. [Idiomatically: Chill out, I was just kidding.] 彼【かれ】はやめたいっつってんだから、やめさせてやりゃいいじゃん。 (=彼【かれ】はやめたいといっているんだから、やめさせてやればいいじゃない。) He's saying he wants to quit, so why not ...


11

Like Mark says, it's short for 待っていて, which is the て-form of 待っている. I think it's a little softer than saying ちょっと待って, and since Yotsuba is not one of the family, the mother is being a little more polite. Saying ちょっと待って can sound a little short. The meaning changes with the extra て, but I can't describe how it changes well. Something like "please be there ...


9

いただきました is past tense of いただく, which is a polite version of もらう, which means 'to receive'. 下さいました is past tense of 下さる, which is a polite version of くれる, which means 'to give'. They are different words but can be used in the same context as long as you correctly assign who is the giver and who is the receiver. But do take note that the emphasis of the ...


9

First, the ~てしまう construction can convey a sense of regret, which the 切る verb suffix cannot: 花瓶を落として割ってしまった。 I dropped the vase and [regrettably] broke it. 花瓶を落として割り切った。 (unnatural) When used in constructions expressing the completion or finishing of an action, 切る tends to sound best with actions that can be measured on a scale, but there's a lot ...


9

As you correctly understood, よりを戻す is an idiom meaning for a broken couple to get back together. [縒]{よ}る means “to twist threads together to make a thicker string.” [縒]{よ}りを戻す literally means to undo this process and turn a string into several threads apart. This may sound like the opposite of getting back together (certainly it does sound like the ...


9

While 「問って」 may seem the logical conjugation, 「問う」 is actually irregular (see the Wikipedia entry for 不規則動詞). According to this article, 「問って」 is "almost never used". It appears therefore that 「問うて」 is correct in modern Japanese. In case you are wondering why, the author of the latter article hypothesizes that this irregular conjugation makes the dictionary ...


8

I hear 「まだ見ていない。」, which seems entirely normal, comparable to the English construction "I still haven't seen it." => "I'm in a still-continuing state of not seeing it." I suppose there's some element of volition here; it's still possible for her to see it if she wants to. For example, if a pterodactyl flew overhead, and you missed seeing it, you would say ...


8

We can process this confusing construction if we first realize that "try" is (more often than not, I would say,) a poor substitution for the ~てみる form. This is because "try" conjures up the connotation of "attempt", which implies a possibility of failure. For this particular meaning, the ~ようとする form is more suitable. A better explanation of ~てみる, then, is ...


8

You can use these sentences in two ways. One is to use it as in "I don't want you to say x (literary)". Another is to use it as in "I resent what you already said". So, what's the difference? In the first case, 言わないでほしい is an explicit request. 言ってほしくない merely states that you don't want the other guy to tell anybody, and the request is only implied. As a ...


8

I think each verb is somewhat a case of its own, but generally speaking they all seem to relate somehow to the progressive nature of the ~ている form. If we get to the specifics, here are my impressions, based on my experience, intuition and grammatical understanding (all of them seem to point to the same thing in this case, which is good). Sorry, no ...


8

This construction is not limited to i-adjectives. You can have similar pairs with verbs. In general, you can continue a sequence of predicates with either The stem of a verb/i-adjective, or 彼は階段で転び、泣いた。 太陽光線は暖かいけどまぶしく、肌に刺すようです The て-form. 彼は階段で転んで、泣いた。 太陽光線は暖かいけどまぶしくて、肌に刺すようです The stem form is the nuetral way of connecting ...


8

That is 100% correct and natural; It just uses colloquial contractions. This sentence is written very informally as you could tell from the multiple し's. 出てった = 出ていった って = とて (とて means the same thing as としても = "even if".) This is not the quotative 「って」. 待ってて = 待っていて 私がここを出てったって待っててくれる人もいないし = "Even if I left here, there would be no one waiting for ...


7

Both means a continued change in state but with slight difference. 行く is for something that moves away from the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or away from another person's viewpoint that the speaker adopts. 来る is for something that moves towards the speaker (not necessarily a physical movement), or towards another person's ...


7

Well, since I have no examples to go off of, I'll guess at which type of scenario you're thinking of. It can mean like "But" or "Well (then)" in a kind of defensive sort of way. Usually giving a reason for some action. Like なぜかというと. Ex: お皿{さら}のものはみんな食{た}べなさい → Eat everything on your plate. だってお腹{なか}が一杯{いっぱい}なんだもん → But I'm full!


7

Peter Sells (1995) calls ないで as verbal gerund and なくて as adjectival gerund. When you have participial constructions, they do not make difference, but Sells notices that only the verbal gerund can be selected by an auxiliary verb: 食べないでおいた * 食べなくておいた (Sells 1995:287) Similarly to that, when you want to use these forms adverbially as in your ...


7

The ~て form can be used to chain sentences together. That is, any two sentences can be made into one by changing the verb of the first sentence into its ~て form. The result can be translated with the conjunction and and means that the first sentence happens and then the second. In your case きのうはうちにかえりました。何をしましたか。 Yesterday you went home. What did you ...


6

て is a form that is quite basic (called gerund, infinitive, or participle in modern linguistics depending on the researcher) and has different usages. Among the various usages, it can be used as an omitted form of ...てください 'please do ...' or ...てほしい 'I want you to do ...', expressing request with various strength depending on the context, but it cannot be ...


6

Added: This answer was written in response to the revision 1 of the question. It turned out that the answer was not very relevant to the question which Pacerier wanted to ask. -てしまった is the past form of -てしまう, and it means completion. It often implies that the action is undesirable. 皿を割ってしまった。 (さらをわってしまった。) I broke a plate. -てきた is the past form of ...


6

There is some Deep Magic going on here. Let me try to offer a theory which, hopefully, will not muddy the waters further. The ~て form of verbs (both positive and negative) implies a decision point. That is, at some point in time, you choose to do something or not to do something. Once this choice is made, it is irreversible. Consider 食べてください. In effect, ...


6

I am pretty sure that wherever you had this question, there was a context because any of these four can be correct depending on the context. If it was asked without context, I will have to say that your source is not reliable for studying Japanese. 僕はこれまで彼をある出来事のために恨んできた。でも、それは三十年前のことだから、もう忘れる。 僕はかつて難しい計算ができた。でも、それは三十年前のことだから、もう忘れた。 ...


6

Trying to translate your initial phrase directly may be too burdensome, but beginning a request with "If I may...," has a direct translation suitable for you: よろしければ。。。 Here is an example, though the whole sentence is probably a bit too stiff for your purposes: If I may, I'd like to ask you a few questions about something else. ...


6

In addition to what @Sjiveru said, it's probably also OK to use ○ 読ませていただきました ; ? お読みしました ○ 目を通しました (this might require some discretion, as it may make the email sound unimportant) ○ メール、確認させていただきました ; △ メールが届きました ○ 拝見しました (again, depending on how high up this superiour is)


6

ご飯を食べてから一緒に公園で/をさんぽしましょ。 ご飯を食べてから公園で/を一緒にさんぽしましょ。 ... both sound natural to me and I don't see much difference between them. You can also say ご飯の後で~~ ご飯を食べたら~~ ~~~一緒に公園にさんぽに行きましょ。 etc.



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