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1

The reason I'm confused over this is because despite the clauses being opposite polarity they are using the て/で form. The で you mentioned is used to join two sentences here, and it isn't a counterpart of て/で form in verbs, though their... they're very confusing. As it's... its true identity is somewhat debatable and I don't know how your textbook ...


4

これはAで、Bではありません。 means 'This is A, not B.' This is similar to これはBではなく、Aです。(This is not B, but A). これはAですが、Bではありません。(This is A, but not B.) So これらは "Yes, I'm following you; please continue."という意味で、"Yes, I agree." という意味ではありません。 means 'This means "Yes, I'm following you; please continue" and NOT "Yes I agree".' You would say ...


7

This 〜た is the perfect, not past; that is, it's indicating a time before some reference time, rather than a time before speech time: 傘を持っていったほうがいい。 Lit. "Having brought an umbrella would be better." That said, I don't think native speakers actually have such a complicated model (of comparing possible future worlds, one of which where you have brought ...


4

The suffix た does not automatically imply past tense. In this free online dictionary, for instance, it lists 8 different meanings /usages of 「た」. https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%9F-556028#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC.E4.B8.89.E7.89.88 Sure, you may not be able to read it, but it would at least give you a good sign that you should forget about ...


1

The first part, 彼の実力をかんがえて is not immediately incomprehensible, but since the construction ~をかんがえて usually stands for "showing consideration for", it sounds quite unnatural. You should use conditional phrases here, like かんがえたら, かんがえれば, かんがえると etc. The last part, 今回のかれの受賞は驚くには当たらない should always be 驚くには. You cannot replace it with 驚くのには. There's ...


1

You can say 彼の実力を考えると(or考えれば)、今回の彼の受賞は驚くには(or驚くに)当たらない。 Using 考えて or 驚くのには would sound unnatural here, I'm afraid.


0

I think if you use と, you should fix it as Takashi's comment if you use て, i think the 2nd one is ok. However, the 3rd one may be changed to 「驚くのは当たらない」(remove に)


3

Most textbooks note that using か to mark two noun alternatives, the last one can be omitted. You are probably talking about something like this: ステーキか、すしにします。 / ステーキか、すしを食べます。 (I'll have either steak or sushi.) However, you cannot omit the second か in a sentence like below, even though か marks two noun alternatives: ...


4

図書館でいろいろな教室でできないことができる。 This is not grammatically wrong, but a little hard to understand. いろいろな教室でできないこと sounds like 'things you can't do in various classrooms' (The いろいろな looks like modifying 教室). If you mean 'In the library, you can do various things you can't do in the classroom' then you can say 図書館では、教室で(は)できないことがいろいろできる。 or ...


2

You have pretty much answered your own question. When a sentence consists of multiple clauses where each is about the same topic and each can logically end with the same verb, auxiliary verb or adjective, you can omit that word in all of the clauses except for the last. 「その[詩人]{しじん}の[発想]{はっそう}はまことに[融通無碍]{ゆうずうむげ}、 [操]{あやつ}る[言葉]{ことば}は[自由自在]{じゆうじざい}だ。」 ...


4

The meaning of this sentence is the same as those with で/であり. Omitting certain verbs such as だ/です makes this sentence sound somewhat more rhythmical and crisp. I think this is at least closely related to so-called 体言【たいげん】止【ど】め, a common rhetorical technique in which a sentence is ended with a noun.


2

You can use verb-た時 or verb-たら. Both can also be used the same way for future events. I'd like to add. You often see past tense, present tense but in japanese, you have accomplished and not-accomplished tense. This is why it makes sense to say stuff like "駅に着いた時に連絡する。".


3

It's not quite so clear cut as you may hope, as with a large portion of Japanese which translates badly. If you want "when" as a general sense, such as "When I was a student", append 頃{ころ} to it at the end. 学生{がくせい}の頃{ころ} When (I) was a student. Generally, 時{とき} refers to what you want, which you use for verbs. There's no need for a の, just place ...


3

Just use the past tense of a verb before 時. For example "When I woke up" would be 私が起きた時 or "When the game ended" would be 試合が終わった時. Verbs can be used to modify nouns in this way. Like "the book I read" would be 私が読んだ本. The "when" issue is essentially the same, I think :)


2

Yes you can, the two sentences are equally natural, and identical in meaning.


2

AはBのことだ is "A means B". Aというの is "what's called A". So, 「関東地方」というのは東京のことですか is "Does what's called Kanto Region mean Tokyo?". (Incidentally, the answer is no) 「関東地方」というのは東京ということですか can mean the same thing as …東京のこと… but that という(こと) is more likely to denote a clause. It sounds like 東京(にいる)ということ or "By saying 'Kanto Region', do you mean you've been to ...


0

The last example, at least, is very bulky and most people would not bother saying "という" twice as it is redundant. The other two seem fine to me.The second is a bit more concise. I do not see any great difference. If I were to translate, 1 is By Kanto, are you talking about Tokyo? 2. is roughly By Kanto, do you mean Tokyo? 3. is roughly By Kanto, do you mean ...


1

First, it sounds strange to me to put "I" as default subject of the determining sentence. I'd rather explicitly mark a subject, unless it's very clear from its context. Anyway, わたしが読む本 : the book I do read (O) わたしが読まない本 : the book I don't read (O) わたしが読んで本 : the book I'm reading (X) わたしが読まないで本 : the book I'm not reading (X) わたしが読んだ本 : the book I did ...


0

役所のある都市A city that has government offices. Due to が -> の conversion, this is the equivalent to 役所がある都市. Credit to @snailboat 議会や中心になるBecomes (things like) central and congress. In this case, this is not a one time thing, or a future occurrence - it is in the present. This basically means it is being/doing. Another example of なる meaning "to be/to do" is ...


3

You should read the sentence in this way: NP{ NP(その国) POSS(の) NP[ NP(議会) AND(や) NP(中心になる役所) ] } SUBJ(の) V(ある) NP(都市) , where NP{} is the subject of the sentence modifying 'city'. It's not a full parse, but I hope you understand the point here. OP seems to have a problem reading NP[], which is a ...


2

The second が in the snippet 岐阜県警が捜索したが見つからず is not the subject marker, but the conjunction particle が (which you could replace by け(れ)ど(も)) translating to "but": 岐阜県警が捜索したが見つからず Gifu Police searched [for the missing person], but not finding [him, had to call off the search the same evening...] I don't understand your "sentence segment", so I can't ...


2

It means "he meant to dip the string through that hole and fish". When the subject is 2nd or 3rd person, というのだ or ということだ work. Otherwise, it has to be ということだ only, i.e. you can't use というのだ for "I mean"(*) or "it means". (* Accurately, というのだ for "I mean" still works when you express your own action through other person's perspective.)


2

Part 1 Let's start with the verb "to go", 行く. Here is a perfectly valid sentence: 行く。 What does it mean? Well, this verb can take some arguments, such as the actor: who is going; (required) the destination: where they are going; (optional) You may have noticed that no actor was listed in the sentence, despite me claiming it is "required". It ...


5

There's no implicit order which word you should use for stacking sections. You can (basically) freely choose linking words for you additional sections. A non-exhaustive list is: 次{つぎ}に, 更{さら}に(は), そして, それから, その上{うえ}(に), この上{うえ}(に), 加{くわ}えて, それに加{くわ}え(て), 他{ほか}に(も), また, 並{なら}びに, および, それだけでなく, のみならず etc. etc. Variations for "firstly" and "finally" are: ...


4

「いつか日本に行きます。」 sounds the most natural. You could insert a comma if you like to put in a pause:「いつか、日本に行きます。」 and it will be equally correct grammar. Japanese does not usually need or use a pronoun; rather, the pronoun is, in most cases, implied. If you do not include 「私は」, it is clear to the listener that you must be talking about yourself since you did ...



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