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9

This 〜た is the perfect, not past; that is, it's indicating a time before some reference time, rather than a time before speech time: 傘を持っていったほうがいい。 Lit. "Having brought an umbrella would be better." That said, I don't think native speakers actually have such a complicated model (of comparing possible future worlds, one of which where you have brought ...


8

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


8

As with almost anything, there are people who care and others who don't! But it is definitely a thing to consider if you are trying to write well. Degrees of severity There are two angles to this. One is “trivial“, in that the consideration is mostly about legibility, flow, and aesthetics. The other is more consequential, where the “false compound” could ...


8

They are not grammatical phrases. We just read the symbols verbatim like: [⁠1]{いち} [+]{たす} [⁠2]{に} [=]{は} [⁠3]{さん} It has nothing different than saying: [⁠1]{いち} [+]{プラス} [⁠2]{に} [=]{イコール} [⁠3]{さん} which is also commonly heard. Though we have both [+]{たす/プラス} and [−]{ひく/マイナス}, [×]{かける} and [÷]{わる} only ...


8

A. 電話{でんわ}番号{ばんごう}は何番{なんばん}ですか。(What is your phone number?) B. 今年{ことし}は何年{なんねん}ですか。(What year is this?) C. 好{す}きな色{いろ}は何色{なにいろ}ですか。(What is your favorite color?) D. この車{くるま}はあなたの車{くるま}ですか。(Is this your car?) All of these four sentences include a kind of duplication, but nobody feels that they are redundant. Perhaps you think that A, B, C ...


7

No, that's a ren’yōkei 連用形。 A ren’yōkei mid-sentence is for coordination, like English “he sat, and…”. You can think of it as a literary equivalent of 「こしをかけて、。。。」 Kateikei is what comes before -ba, so in this case it would be kakere-. Full table, with sample context: 未然形: 掛け-  kake- (-nai) 連用形: 掛け-  kake- (-masu) 終止形: 掛ける kake-ru (yo.) 連体形: 掛ける- ...


7

This is a relative clause. You might translate it as "The time has come, where (I) die in the greenhouse" or "The time to [die in the greenhouse] has come". It's split up the following way: 温室で死ぬ - die in the greenhouse 時が来た - time has come Literally "Die-in-the-greenhouse time has come". English has signal words that introduce a relative clause, ...


7

You would use [年上]{とし・うえ} for older and [年下]{とし・した} for younger. 僕は彼女より2歳年上だ。 → I'm two years older than my girlfriend. 妹は私より5歳年下です。 → My sister is five years younger than I. You can also use them by themselves. 花子さんには年下の[旦那]{だん・な}さんがいる。 → Hanako has a younger husband. 翔平は兄弟の中で一番年上だ。 → Shōhei is the oldest of his siblings.


7

言い知れぬ is an expression that is used like an adjective, but is actually a negative verb. Basically, it's an archaic way of saying 言い知れない. In this case, don't think of 言い知れぬ as modifying the na-adjective. Think of it as modifying the noun which has already been modified by the na-adjective. The "sweetness" isn't what's indescribable; the "sweet thing" is.


7

As Yuu wrote, there is a tendency that よく immediately before a verb often means “well” and that よく at the beginning of a sentence often means “often,” but it is by no means a firm rule. Word order is one of the clues, but in the end, the distinction depends on the context. For example, suppose that someone said よく先生の講義を聞いていれば、試験でいい点がもらえる。 Does it ...


7

"大声で" isn't an adverb, but rather a noun followed by the particle で, which indicates the means by which something is done. The difference is like the English "There was even a person who was singing in a loud voice while climbing the mountain" vs. "There was even a person who was singing loudly while climbing the mountain". "大声で" is better thought of as the ...


7

田中さんは山田さんが建物はどこか知っていると言った To understand the word order in a complicated sentence like this, it is useful to break it down into parts called bunsetsu: Each arrow represents that everything before the arrow modifies the bunsetsu immediately after the arrow. For example, 建物は modifies どこか, and both 山田さんが and 建物はどこか modify 知っていると. (Two caveats: It is ...


6

図書館でいろいろな教室でできないことができる。 This is not grammatically wrong, but a little hard to understand. いろいろな教室でできないこと sounds like 'things you can't do in various classrooms' (The いろいろな looks like modifying 教室). If you mean 'In the library, you can do various things you can't do in the classroom' then you can say 図書館では、教室で(は)できないことがいろいろできる。 or ...


6

There's no implicit order which word you should use for stacking sections. You can (basically) freely choose linking words for your additional sections. A non-exhaustive list is: 次{つぎ}に, 更{さら}に(は), そして, それから, その上{うえ}(に), この上{うえ}(に), 加{くわ}えて, それに加{くわ}え(て), 他{ほか}に(も), また, 並{なら}びに, および, それだけでなく, のみならず etc. etc. Variations for "firstly" and "finally" are: ...


6

The easiest and surest way to do it that would leave no room for misunderstanding (and maintain at least the fine newspaper article quality) would be to say: 「新渡戸、内村(の)[両氏自身]{りょうしじしん}」 or 「新渡戸・内村両氏自身」 or 「新渡戸[及]{およ}び内村(の)両氏自身」  「両氏」 can be replaced by 「[両名]{りょうめい}」 without changing any nuance.


6

Am I using は and が right? ×私は山田さんが描きました。 ○私は山田さんを描きました。I drew Yamada-san. ○私は山田さんの[絵]{え}を描きました。I drew a picture of Yamada-san. You have to mark the direct object (the thing the verb acts upon) with を.Like in 私はパンを食べます (I eat bread), for example, where you mark the thing you eat with を. Here you attach を to the thing you drew. Am I using the right ...


5

The easiest and most commonly-used structure for expressing: "come/go/return, etc. + in + (time period) " would be to use particle 「で」 and say: 「(time period) + で + [来]{き}ます/[行]{い}きます/[戻]{もど}ります, etc.」 This would by far be the most versatile way of expressing "in (a time period)" Other expressions: 「(time period) + [後]{ご}に + (verb phrase)」 ...


5

This is a simple case of subclauses - you've still got one を per clause: [この道を[靴を履かずに]歩けますか。] 靴 is the object of 履かず, 道 is the object* of 歩けます. *Depending on your interpretation of を with what you would think are intransitive verbs. You can read more about these sorts of cases here: It seems that 渡る is categorized as 自動詞 (intransitive verb), yet it is ...


5

Correct me if I'm wrong, but I think you're trying to say something like Please feel free to contact me again. Maybe? From your choice of 僕, I'm guessing this is not necessarily an overly formal context. お好きに is not used like that. (Did you get this from お好きにどうぞ?) Depending on context and tone, もしよかったら or お気軽に or いつでも might be usable, although I ...


5

You can parse it like this: 初めは[{(番組を編成する際の)穴埋め}として]放映されていたのだが、 番組を編成する際の modifies 穴埋め, "fillers (between programs) used when editing TV programs / planning program schedule." So I think it's like "In the beginning, anime were broadcasted as fillers inserted when organising TV programmes, but..." 番組の数が増え、年月を経るうちに、 as they(=TV programs) grew in ...


5

The suffix た does not automatically imply past tense. In this free online dictionary, for instance, it lists 8 different meanings /usages of 「た」. https://kotobank.jp/word/%E3%81%9F-556028#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC.E4.B8.89.E7.89.88 Sure, you may not be able to read it, but it would at least give you a good sign that you should forget about ...


5

みなりのポケットの中には、ボールペンを二本あります。 There are two pens in the dress' pocket. [身]{み}なり refers to how you are dressed, your appearance, etc. Use ドレス for dress as in long dress or wedding dress, 服 or 洋服 for general clothes. を is used to indicate an object; use the subject particle が since the ボールペン is the subject of あります. あります would be fine but 入っています would be ...


5

「と」 here is a quotative particle used to quote 「ふん」; It is not an abbreviation of anything. 「と」, all by itself, is in its full form. It may look like 「と」 is at the beginning of the sentence, but in essence, it is the same as: 「ふん」と、彼女は鼻を鳴らし、中学の制服である・・・・ A direct quote, no matter how short it is, is often treated as a full line in stories, which is what ...


5

A lot has changed, IMO one good way is to compare newspapers from the days. This one is from the Meiji era: http://www.geocities.jp/tanaka_kunitaka/takeshima/saninshimbun/02.gif This one from during WW2: http://userdisk.webry.biglobe.ne.jp/005/523/32/N000/000/000/123528635262516412541.jpg This is from 1960: ...


5

I think both of your sentences are occasionally used but the most common way of saying it is "電話番号を教えてください".


4

The meaning of this sentence is the same as those with で/であり. Omitting certain verbs such as だ/です makes this sentence sound somewhat more rhythmical and crisp. I think this is at least closely related to so-called 体言【たいげん】止【ど】め, a common rhetorical technique in which a sentence is ended with a noun.


4

「Verb in [連用形]{れんようけい} + て + の + Noun」 is a phrase pattern in which the "Verb + て + の" part describes the condition that generates what is expressed by the following noun. 「“[昭和]{しょうわ}な[顔]{かお}”を[買]{か}われての[起用]{きよう}」 means: "casting based upon his reputation as having the 'Showa-esque face'" 「買われる」 here means "to be regarded highly". (I am not ...


4

Don't mix だ/である style and です/ます style. Replace 今から (from now) with ひとまず (for now; putting that aside). Use も (also; too) instead of を so that you can clarify your intention. 見てみましょう (take a look) is better than simple 見ましょう here. (optional) 定義を与える sounds like a literal translation. Consider 定義を述べる. この言葉について私自身の定義を述べますが、ひとまず、異なるシナリオも見てみましょう。 ...


4

これはAで、Bではありません。 means 'This is A, not B.' This is similar to これはBではなく、Aです。(This is not B, but A). これはAですが、Bではありません。(This is A, but not B.) So これらは "Yes, I'm following you; please continue."という意味で、"Yes, I agree." という意味ではありません。 means 'This means "Yes, I'm following you; please continue" and NOT "Yes I agree".' You would say ...


4

Recently, @naruto mentioned the phrase 頭が赤い魚を食べた猫, which can be understood in many ways. There is some ambiguity in how each word relates to each other. Among other possibilities, it could mean [(頭が赤い)魚]を食べた猫 (red-headed fish) [(頭が赤い)+(魚を食べた)]猫 (red-headed cat) The same applies here. Consider the following pattern: AとBとCのD As far as logic and ...



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