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7

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


6

You would use [年上]{とし・うえ} for older and [年下]{とし・した} for younger. 僕は彼女より2歳年上だ。 → I'm two years older than my girlfriend. 妹は私より5歳年下です。 → My sister is five years younger than I. You can also use them by themselves. 花子さんには年下の[旦那]{だん・な}さんがいる。 → Hanako has a younger husband. 翔平は兄弟の中で一番年上だ。 → Shōhei is the oldest of his siblings.


3

I feel that the forms in David's answer are a bit uncommon. I'd just use a plain 〜たら: 朝起きたら、猫にエサをやる。 When I wake up in the morning, I feed my cat.


3

This [verb] + ではないか is an exclamatory phrase which denotes the speaker's surprise or accusation. [*]電車は反対方向に走り始めたではない。 (Ungrammatical) 電車は反対方向に走り始めたではないか。 (To my surprise,) The train started to run in the opposite direction! 電車は反対方向に走り始めたのではない。 It is not that the train started to run in the opposite direction. 電車は反対方向に走り始めたのではないか。 (I ...


2

Looks to me to be just the て that joins clauses i.e. verb-A-て verb-B do verb-A and do verb-B or, during the act of verb-A, verb-B The latter option seems to work better here. Living in these times, we know that wickedness is increasing more and more.


2

You have several possibilites to do this. The most used are: Verb + と + action afterwards. This is a good choice, if you want to list many subsequent events. The verb must be in the present tense. If you still want to speak about the past, make the part after と in past tense. Verb + [後]{あと}で + action afterwards. The focus here is on the previous event ...


2

What to do you think about this parsing: (子どもたちが話している)(にぎやかな声). The verb phrase modifies にぎやかな声 as a whole. EDIT: The て form and 連体節 (modifying with a verb phrase) doesn't serve the same purpose. て tends to stream-line (one things after the other) whereas 連体節 modifies the things that follows. (子どもたちが話していて)(にぎやかな声), the parenthesis can't be placed like ...


2

In addition to istrasci's answer, a version that is often used in introductions and the like is xxつ[上]{うえ}の[person] and xxつ[下]{した}の[person] 5つ下の妹。 Younger sister five years younger 2つ上の彼女 Girlfriend two years older


1

Another phrase for "reason" is "in order to", which is usually constructed with (の)ために. The shorter version of that is (の)に. 私は日本語の[新聞]{しんぶん}を[読]{よ}むのに[辞書]{じしょ}を[使]{つか}う。 watashi ha nihongo no shinbun wo yomu no ni jisho wo tsukau. In order to read Japanese newspaper, I use a dictionary. That's the grammar point used in your first sentence "sentaku ni ...



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