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Regarding the difference between 歌 and 曲: An (entire) work of vocal music, A track (with vocal): Both 曲 or 歌 are used interchangeably, but the former is more common. ビートルズの[曲/歌]が2つ入ったCD A work of music without vocal (e.g. a piece of classical music): 曲 シューベルトの曲を演奏する Music (as opposed to lyrics/vocal), Melody: 曲 Song (as opposed to melody/lyrics), ...


歌{うた} - This word means "song", but it includes vocals. You wouldn't use it for musical instruments. 歌う{うたう} means "sing", after all. 曲{きょく} - Melody, tune, etc. This one is for instruments, like a song on the piano. 歌曲{かきょく} - I imagine this is a general word for "song", but I don't have much experience with it. I think it's relatively rare. 唄{うた} - I'm ...

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