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10

An excerpt from 広辞苑's definition for 鉄拳: 堅く握りかためたこぶし。にぎりこぶし。げんこつ。 In short, こぶし means fist, while 鉄拳 means more specifically a tightly clenched fist. This should come as no surprise to you, as you've already looked it up in dictionaries which say so. It's true that it literally means "iron fist", but it isn't generally used for its literal meaning. ...


8

There is a clear difference (no pun intended) between 日本酒 and 清酒. The clue is in the kanji 「清」 = "clear". 清酒 is one of the two main types of 日本酒 --- 清酒 and にごり[酒]{ざけ}. The former is refined and colorless and the latter is unrefined and cloudy.


6

The main differences are in the formality/informality of these words, not really in their meanings. They all mean "to roam about (aimlessly)" and I will mention the small difference in nuance later on. 「ぶらつく」 and 「うろつく」 are more informal than 「さまよう」. The existence of the onomatopoeias 「ぶらぶら」 and 「うろうろ」 should tell you something about the colloquiality of ...


6

This is no easy question and I do not claim to know all about it. Informally, 「[経験]{けいけん}」 and 「[体験]{たいけん}」 are often used interchangeably when referring to a single incident that is a new experience for that person. Regarding whether or not doing so is appropriate, I will leave the judgement to the experts here. All I know for certain is that native ...


6

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


6

The only difference between the two phrases is in their formality level. どのように is more formal (and polite) than どうやって. If you are familiar with the verb やる, you know that it is a casual/conversational verb. やって is a form of やる. What is the verb that is more formal than やる but has the same meaning? It is する. Thus, you can also say どのようにして to mean ...


6

In spoken language, strange as it may sound, there is really no shorter way to say [下]{した}の[名前]{なまえ} to refer to one's given name. As a native speaker, I would surely know if there were such a word. There are a couple of ways to ask for one's given name in spoken Japanese. 1) Direct: 「下のお名前を[教]{おし}えていただけますか。」 2) Indirect: 「[田中]{たなか}なに[様]{さま} (or ...


6

most practical to learn first for a beginner How about [飛行機]{ひこうき}? Japanese kids learn it (and the verb 飛ぶ) before 飛行, フライト, and 便. So you can say: I've booked my flight. 飛行機を[予約]{よやく}しました。(not *便を予約する. ?フライトを予約する) I have a flight home on the 22nd. 22日の飛行機で([国]{くに}に)[帰]{かえ}ります。 (You can use 便 / フライト too but I think 飛行機 is more common in ...


5

飛行【ひこう】 means "flight" as in "the act of traveling by air". It's not used to mean "flight" as in "Flight 437 departing from Milan..." That term is 航空便【こうくうびん】 in full, just 便【びん】 for short. 航空便 can also mean "air service", as in "there is air service (i.e. there are flights) between Hawaii and Samoa", or "air mail" as an abbreviation of 航空【こうくう】郵便【ゆうびん】. ...


5

If you are familiar with the general difference between on-readings (音読み) and kun-readings (訓読み), you already know the basic difference between 形【かたち】 (kun) and 形状【けいじょう】 (on). 形 is used in informal conversations/writings and most of formal conversations, while 形状 is preferred in formal written texts or scientific articles. Usually Japanese children learn ...


4

帰る, sometimes translated as "to go home" is the preferred way to say "to go back", when you speak about your home country, your home town, your parents' home, etc. For example, I have to go back to Australia next month. 来月オーストラリアに帰らないといけない。 (or any other version of "have to") If you've lived in another country, then saying 来月イギリスに帰る。 sounds ...


4

I searched The Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) using the freely accessible 少納言 tool. I found the following results: (はな|鼻)を?ほじ[ら-ろっ]    8 results (はな|鼻)を?ほじく[ら-ろっ]   4 results (はな|鼻)を?穿[ら-ろっ]     0 results To explain the above, and to explain how to reproduce these results: I used the regular expression pattern (はな|鼻)を?$ ...


4

The best way is to look each of these terms up individually in Japanese language dictionaries and check examples of usage, but here's a translated synopsis. Many of these meanings overlap. でも: "though that may be the case" / (though the prior statement may be true) しかし: "in contrast to the previous statement" / (lit. "unlike" the prior statement) ただし: is ...


4

[結構]{けっこう} is an extremely often-used word meaning "fairly", "pretty (much)", "to a (great) degree", etc. 結構くせがある means "to have pretty strong or peculiar habits" くせ = [癖]{くせ} = habit Lastly, [結構人]{けっこうじん} has nothing to do with 結構くせがある. It means a "very likable person".


4

In brief, 費やす is used to say something was used badly (wasted/squandered). Unless that is what I want to communicate, I refrain from using it. I see that my dictionary (プログレッシブ英和)gives two meanings: one to spend and one to squander - see examples below - but for the sake of clarity I suspect most people follow my practice (but am open to comment). ...


3

"Chi" is a pretty common morpheme but seldom used as a word, except in certain fossilized phrases. "Ichi" is unambiguously an independent word. So they are different in that respect. I would call it a qualitative difference; others may disagree. Whether that difference is sufficient to allow one as a Wiktionary entry but reject the other depends on ...


3

They have the same meaning of "dangerous", but 危うい is used more in the written language (文語), whereas 危ない is used more in the spoken language (口語). Here's a Chiebukuro question asking about this. 大辞林 has a note in the entry for 危ない ...


3

These are my thoughts. 友達のジョン → My friend John 先生の山田さん → A/My teacher Ms. Yamada 勝利者の亀さん → The winner: the turtle (as opposed to the hare) These are all adnominal copulas historically coming from the defective Old Japanese copula, に (infinitive), にて (continuative), にあり (conclusive), の (adnominal). It can be replaced with である, but である has a ...


3

類語例解辞典 says [使い分け] 【1】「貸す」は、一般的に広く用いられる。 【2】「貸し出す」は、公共機関や店が、そこの所有物を一時的に、そこから持ち出すことを認める意。また、銀行などの金融機関では金銭についてもいう。 Namely, the difference is that 貸し出す is used when some sort of organization, store, or bank is doing the lending. (If this is accurate, I don't think 貸す and 貸し出す are parallel to "lend" and "lend out" in English, where I think the only ...


3

One convenient way to manage situations like this is to combine following pieces to convey your intention: 同音【どうおん】 same reading (on- or kun-) 同訓【どうくん】 same kun-reading 異音【いおん】 different reading 同義【どうぎ】 same meaning 異義【いぎ】 different meaning 類義【るいぎ】 similar meaning 同字【どうじ】 same kanji 異字【いじ】 different kanji For example, there are 同音異義語, 同音異字語, 同字異音異義語, ...


3

I've been waiting for an answer, but no one has answered yet. So I just put what I know here. Generally speaking, verbs that take the form [one kanji + する] are highly irregular and many of them are formal, literary or archaic. 訳す conjugates like a regular godan verb. It's frequently used, so it becomes a regular verb. 否定 訳さない/訳さず 意志 訳そう 可能 訳せる 受身 訳される ...


3

From my personal experience, 「亡くなる」 is the most neutral word. 「先生のお父さんはがんで亡くなられたよ」 - "Our teacher's father died from cancer" 「死ぬ」 is a strong word that is usually avoided by polite people, but is used to express emphasis or to deliberately offend. It can also be used to talk about animals. 「勝手に死ね!」 - Literally, "Die on your own!", but is very strong and ...


2

Looking in dictionaries, it doesn't seem like a hard rule, but I get the impression that while both ほじる and ほじくる are used in the literal sense, to pick or dig, when used in the figurative sense, to pry, usually ほじくる is used. And further that the kanji spelling itself is not used currently. Is this correct? That's a slight modification of what I find: ...


2

As already mentioned, "ohiya" is originally a jargon used only inside sushi restaurants to mean "cold drinking water poured in a yunomi (cup)". Another word categorized in this class is "agari", meaning "hot green tea". While the use of "agari" is still limited to sushi restaurants (and I personally never use it), the word "ohiya" is now very widely used ...


2

More context would be helpful. For starters, the last two are action verbs: 写す (transitive "to photograph") and 写る (intransitive "to be photographed"), so I would suggest looking into the differences between those type of verbs. Quick example: 写真を写す to take a picture この写真はとてもよく写っている. This photo came out very well (read: well photographed). As for the ...


2

危ない is "dangerous" while 危うい is "vulnerable" or "not reliable".


2

旬 is a way to group the day of month by its second decimal digit. The days of months whose second digit is 0, 1, and 2 respectively belong to 上旬, 中旬, and 下旬. Strictly following this rule, the days 30 and 31 should not belong to any of them, but by adjustment, they belong to 下旬. 始め (beginning), 半ば (midst), and 終わり (end) have nothing particularly to do with ...


2

Don't forget about words like そんな, どういう, あのような, etc! I think you mostly don't need a separate noun. For a sense like The health care provider will choose the best type of insulin for you ... where there may be specific describable "versions" or "types" of something that come to mind (with different purposes etc.), 種類 seems like a good fit. It doesn't ...


1

Well, the Wisdom J-E dictionary lists the following examples for 飛行: 夜間飛行【やかんひこう】: night flight ニューヨークへ向けて【むけて】飛行する: fly to New York It uses 便 along the same lines: 彼はニューヨーク行きの3時の便に乗った: He took the 3 o'clock flight to New York. So it seems like either of those would work. My instinct would say to go with 便, personally. The other two feel more ...


1

This is just a guess to answer your updated challenge based on then entries in the プログレッシブ dictionary. Whereas 捕らえる puts the emphasis on the capture of a criminal, 捕まえる can be used to refer to either the capture (捕らえる) or the detaining (引き留める). In your question you made the criminal the subject and used the word やっと to mean finally caught: The emphasis ...



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