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6

I think the difference between 肩に乗せる and 肩にかける is trivial, and does not help understand the difference between 担ぐ and 担う. What's more important is the following sentence: (「担う」は)下から支える意味合いが強く、通常は「次代をになう」「責任をになう」のように、物事を支えるという抽象的な意味で用いられることが多い。 担【かつ】ぐ and 担【にな】う both means to carry, but the latter is almost always used metaphorically today (役割を担う, ...


6

There is a difference and it is not so small. 「[苗字]{みょうじ}」 is the word we use to refer to one's family name (as opposed to one's given name) in our everyday life. In saying things like "What's your family name?", "I only know his family name: I forgot his given name.", "She has the same family name as I do.", everyone will use 「苗字」. No one would use ...


6

This is a really interesting question! Here is just my way of looking at it. “無理な X” does not really specify which aspects of X are 無理 (= extremely difficult, near impossible, or unreasonable). This is a little different from 負け戦 — which by the way can also be used a priori — because it's specified that the impossibility is in the winning/losing part. So ...


5

Regarding the difference between 歌 and 曲: An (entire) work of vocal music, A track (with vocal): Both 曲 or 歌 are used interchangeably, but the former is more common. ビートルズの[曲/歌]が2つ入ったCD A work of music without vocal (e.g. a piece of classical music): 曲 シューベルトの曲を演奏する Music (as opposed to lyrics/vocal), Melody: 曲 Song (as opposed to melody/lyrics), ...


4

「[手招]{てまね}く」, as the 手 part would suggest, means "to signal a person using one's hand to tell that person to come near". The word, therefore, has a very limited meaning. 「[招]{まね}く」 just means "to invite" in general. To 「招く」 a person to a party, you may use the phone, email, snail mail, etc. You probably do not 「手招く」 someone to a "party" unless you are ...


3

No, because it's not an action that you or the listener does. If anything, the action is done by mankind and you don't need to respect mankind ;) Similarly for e.g. 関西でよく食べられる明石焼をご存知ですか?. Here, the verb know is changed to show respect, but not the verb eat. If the action is performed by a group you need to show respect, that's a different story. E.g. ...


3

多難{たなん} literally means "lots of difficulties". There are a few different ways of producing a potential "antonym", depending on what kind of meaning you're looking for. 多幸{たこう} literally means "lots of happinesses / good fortune", and this is often seen as the closest to an antonym. Other possibilities include 無難{ぶなん} "no difficulty", as noted by ...


3

「[足利時代]{あしかがじだい}」 is just another name for 「[室町]{むろまち}時代」; There is no difference in what the two terms refer to. The former name exists because it was the 足利 family who were in control during that period (1336 - 1573). The latter is the usual name we learn in school in Japan. It is like calling 「[江戸]{えど}時代」 as 「[徳川]{とくがわ}時代」; The former is more common. ...


2

In addition to naruto's answer, I think there's an element of aspect: if I understand the terms correctly, katsugu is telic or momentary, describing the action of actually putting something on one's shoulders, whereas ninau has more atelic or ongoing connotations of something being on one's shoulders. This may be part of why the usage diverged over time.


2

Using まめ is correct in the context of getting a blister on your sole. 水疱 and 水ぶくれ have same meaning, but the former one is academic term. 火ぶくれ is only used for it caused by burns.


2

無理 isn't so much 'unprofitable' or 'failed' or 'lost' as it is 'pointless' or 'not worth trying'. 無理だった is a statement that an attempt could never have succeeded in the first place, not merely that it failed. To my ears, there's a clear difference between 負け戦 and 無理な戦. A 負け戦 is simply lost, and that's that; there's nothing else implied about the war. A 無理な戦 ...


1

I'd translate 同然 as "so similar that it can now be considered X" or "as if it is X". It states there is effectively no difference between the two. E.g. 夫婦も同然の二人、もはや勝ったも同然だ. 同様 would be more generally, "in the same manner to X", e.g. 炭酸と同様の作用を有する、操作は先ほどと同様です 同性婚は認められていないものの、夫婦と同様の税制が適用される ... same tax rules are applied . ...


1

旨{むね} only partially substitutes for こと. It means "effect" in "I'll contact them to that effect." For telling the topic of matter, you can use 件{けん} instead. ご契約の旨連絡させていただきます。 I'll let them know to the effect that you (enter into the) contract. ご契約の件連絡させていただきます。 I'll let them know concerning your contract. Both of them are only used in ...



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