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I think the difference between 肩に乗せる and 肩にかける is trivial, and does not help understand the difference between 担ぐ and 担う. What's more important is the following sentence: （「担う」は）下から支える意味合いが強く、通常は「次代をになう」「責任をになう」のように、物事を支えるという抽象的な意味で用いられることが多い。 担【かつ】ぐ and 担【にな】う both means to carry, but the latter is almost always used metaphorically today (役割を担う, ...
In addition to naruto's answer, I think there's an element of aspect: if I understand the terms correctly, katsugu is telic or momentary, describing the action of actually putting something on one's shoulders, whereas ninau has more atelic or ongoing connotations of something being on one's shoulders. This may be part of why the usage diverged over time.
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