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15

You can't just gloss words like that with Japanese (i.e. Thank you = arigatou, go = iku etc.) To express thankfulness, there is a whole palette of expressions that Japanese people use. For example: yoroshiku: said after you have asked someone a big favor and they haven't done it yet but have promised to do it. tasukatta: means like "thanks man I ...


15

成人 is a very specific term and refers to persons who reached the age of 20 and above. It's derived from the definition of the Japanese law, which says "年齢二十歳をもって、成年とする". You used to get drafted and taxed after this age. In today's context, it's the legal drinking/smoking age. 大人 is a more lax term and usually means persons that are older than around 18 ...


15

まぐろ (also written as マグロ and 鮪) is the Japanese word for thunnus, a specific kind of tuna. It refers to both the living fish and the food. Traditionally, まぐろ also referred to billfish because billfish was considered to be a close kind to thunnus. Because of this, even today まぐろ can also refer to billfish. ツナ comes from the English word tuna and it refers ...


14

Yes, as a sentence opener, they are mostly identical and definitely interchangeable. As for details and nuances, cursory Googling yielded this: 「ちなみに」は今まで話していた内容に何か付け加えるときや、 その内容と関係があるけど、少し別の方向へ話を発展させるときに使います。 A: この大学には、学部生が500名、大学院生が50名います。 B: ちなみに、そのうち女性は何割ぐらいですか。 ...


14

火事 means "fire" like what you shout when a building is burning down. Or when we say "my house was lost in a fire", it's that "fire". The big kind that burns things it isn't supposed to. 火 is a more generic word for fire. It's what's on a candle or a torch or in a fireplace. For your first sentence...it depends on if the fire is burning down your ...


14

Observe:  飯 meshi ご飯 gohan They both mean the same thing, which is (cooked) rice and/or meal. Since rice is an essential part of Japanese cuisine, the two meanings very much overlap. As you said, ご〜 go- is an honorific prefix, which makes ご飯 gohan the politer alternative used in more polite speech. 昼飯 hirumeshi 昼ご飯 hirugohan Both mean ...


13

Why are there so many terms for these generic words? Most of them have defferent meanings. Some are used for Western royalty, Some are used for Chinese royalty. 王 - (in general) King e.g. アーサー王 King Arthur 王 - (in historical China and historical Asia) One of the titles of the loads in the Imperial China, or the King of the Imperial Chinese tributary ...


13

Daijisen's got you covered. The usage note under 天気 says that 天気 refers to the atmospheric conditions over a short period of time (two or three days at most), while 天候 is for describing those conditions over a period of several to several tens of days. And of course 天気 can be used in the sense of "good weather", which is a connotation 天候 does not have.


13

Both さけ and しゃけ mean salmon and are written as 鮭 in kanji (but I will avoid using this kanji in this answer for an obvious reason). As far as I know, there is no difference in meaning, but some people seem to distinguish the two words in meanings (see below). According to a webpage by Maruha Nichiro Foods, Inc., the Kōjien dictionary lists the word しゃけ as ...


13

AFAIK, うえ・した is just "(on) top/above vs. (on) bottom/underneath". かみ・しも is usually "upper vs. lower", meaning talking about different parts of the same thing. The easiest example of this to remember is "upstream" vs. "downstream" (川上【かわかみ】 vs. 川下【かわしも】) or "upwind" vs. "downwind" (風上【かざかみ】 vs. 風下【かざしも】). Also, more generically, 上手【かみて】 (upper part) and ...


12

Dave already answered that there is no difference in 迷う and 紕う in modern Japanese. Dictionaries agree on this. However, the original meanings of these two kanji are completely different, and the reason why まよう has these two kanji notations is related to the history of the Japanese word まよう itself, which is explained in Daijisen. Originally, the Japanese ...


11

Ignoring the passives, which can be inferred: 掴む: grasp. 腕を掴む. The action ends once your hand closes on the object. This is in contrast to 握る, which focuses on the time spent gripping the object after it has been taken in the hand. 捕る: capture, as in an animal. 魚を捕る. Can be substituted with 捕獲する. (There are many kanji for とる, the choice of which depends on ...


11

未来 and 将来 are pretty similar to each other. 大辞泉 breaks down the differences here (explanation translated): 将来 and 未来 can both be used in situations where you're talking about the time that will come after the present, e.g. 「将来(未来)への夢」 ("dreams for the future") and 「明るい将来(未来)」 ("a bright future"). 「未来」 cannot be used instead of 「将来」 in an expression ...


10

The other answers, while containing valid and useful information, are not quite what I was looking for, so I continued to research on my own until I came up with the following taxonomy of these terms, with explanations of their meanings as I have come to understand them and examples. Note that the meanings of words and the structure of the classifications ...


10

化け物(ばけもの) and お化け(おばけ)are the same thing. They seem to refer to monsters which are native to Japan, such as Kasa-obake. 妖怪(ようかい) I believe these are also similar to お化け. 怪物(かいぶつ) are usually monsters with fur, or at least that's the impression I get when I hear it. Large, fur-covered, violent creatures that don't seem to think about anything. 怪獣(かいじゅう) Same ...


10

This answer from another site claims that しゃけ is an accent difference in Saitama, Chiba, Shizuoka (basically Kantou). http://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/11481.html But, when I did a part-time job at an 居酒屋(いざかや) during my college time in 四国 (Shikoku - not in Kantou region) around 2005, some people used しゃけ. I didn't know the meaning at that time, and some people ...


10

An excerpt from 広辞苑's definition for 鉄拳: 堅く握りかためたこぶし。にぎりこぶし。げんこつ。 In short, こぶし means fist, while 鉄拳 means more specifically a tightly clenched fist. This should come as no surprise to you, as you've already looked it up in dictionaries which say so. It's true that it literally means "iron fist", but it isn't generally used for its literal meaning. ...


9

Words for Adding Things Note that there are actually many more suru-verb kanji combinations that mean things similar to "adding" or "growing," so I've only covered the two mentioned here. 足す【たす】 This is used only for adding two things of the same type. Example: なべに水を足す "Add water to the pot" 加える【くわえる】 Like 足す, this is also used for adding two ...


9

本日 is keigo. You will hear this on a train or airplane, or in a store. But you won't be saying it yourself, unless if you as a beginning student are put in the unlikely position of making an official announcement to someone. 今日 is what you would use in ordinary situations.


9

The 丼 donburi in 牛丼 gyūdon specifically denotes a bowl of rice. The 飯 meshi in 牛飯 gyūmeshi just means rice or even more generically meal. Both describe the same thing: ぎゅう‐どん【牛丼】 「牛飯(ぎゅうめし)」に同じ。 "See gyūmeshi." ぎゅう‐めし【牛飯】 ネギなどと煮た牛肉を、汁とともにかけたどんぶり飯。牛丼(ぎゅうどん)。 "A rice meal with onions and fried beef [...]. Gyūdon." I'm not sure which one is ...


9

ご飯 (ごはん), 飯 (めし) and ライス all refer to the same thing: steamed rice. ご飯 and 飯 can mean meal, too. As you said, it is not uncommon to see ライス in a menu at a restaurant, even when it is not part of a compound word such as カレーライス. I do not know why they do not say ご飯, and I can only make a guess at possible reasons: As Jeshii said, they may want to make it ...


9

Both are used. お冷 is a bit more chic and it is only cold water (to drink) while お水 is just water in a general meaning. You will never be repressed for using お水 instead of お冷, vice versa.


8

This is what I found in my dictionary. Considering I'm not actually an expert, or even an intermediate at reading Japanese, it might not be the definite answer you're looking for. But since it was impossible to post it as a comment, I'm writing it as an answer: おとな 【大人】 せいじん 【成人】 ☞ アダルト 成長して一人前になった人。【英】 an adult 使い方 大人 ...


8

I think it can be replaced with は and というのは here, as in [2] [1] at this Daijisen definition. According to the 日本語文型辞典, this って indicates a subject, and can be an informal way in speech to state meanings/definitions or to add value/emphasis. When used after nouns and adjectives to state meanings/definitions, this って can correspond with とは. When used ...


8

OK. Not the greatest answer (based on partial ignorance rather than knowledge), but on the chance nobody can come up with better: 紕う and 迷う are ostensibly two spellings of the same word (まよう). This happens a lot in Japanese, as you probably know and is a characteristic feature of the weird marriage of native (oral) Japanese with native (written) Chinese ...


8

What is the difference between 詰まらない and 詰らない? As the comment indicates, it is possible that the first is tumaranai while the second is naziranai, the negative of the verb nazir-. While this is technically possible, it is not so simple. First, the kanzi for nazir- is not so common and few people will be able to read it. Second, tumaranai may be written ...


8

屋 and 家 both roughly mean "house", with 屋 tending more towards the meaning of building and 家 more towards home. The choice of which to use is entirely the owner's. や is the ambiguous way to write either and is pretty much a stylistic choice. Do keep in mind that in the olden days Japanese stores tended to be part home, part store, with the owners living in ...


8

There is a clear difference (no pun intended) between 日本酒 and 清酒. The clue is in the kanji 「清」 = "clear". 清酒 is one of the two main types of 日本酒 --- 清酒 and にごり[酒]{ざけ}. The former is refined and colorless and the latter is unrefined and cloudy.


8

This is another one of those situations where depending on a simple English translation will cause you to lose a lot of important details. If you look at the kanji the difference is pretty clear. 餌食 combines 餌{えさ} and 食 of 食べ物. 餌 means animal feed, and 食 is of course eat, so 餌食 becomes prey in the sense of something that an animal eats for its food, like a ...



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