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7

There is also the word [分野]{ぶん・や} that means field/realm/sphere. Some examples 研究分野 → field of research 彼は物理学の分野でよく知られている → He is well-known in the field of physics 彼は彫刻の分野では第一人者だ → He is second to none in the world of sculpture. Also the suffix 〜[界]{かい}. 政界 → the political world 芸能界 → the entertainment world; show businesses 業界 → ...


4

There's 圏 as in e.g. 漢字文化圏(かんじぶんかけん) and 英語圏(えいごけん).


11

The most common word and character associated for this kind of usage is [圏]{けん}. Anglosphere would be [英語圏]{えいごけん}, and a common term to refer to the East Asian cultural sphere is [漢字文化圏]{かんじぶんかけん} which encompasses China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam.


2

It would need to be 「[商業上]{しょうぎょうじょう}の[目的]{もくてき}で」 with 「上」 to mean "for commercial purposes". 「商業の目的」 sounds too "grandiose" to my Japanese ear. That is like saying "The Purpose of Commerce" in a much more philosophical sense. If one were talking about advertisement or its place in commerce as an everyday kind of phenomenon, 「商業上の目的」 would sound much ...


2

Practically all monolingual dictionaries will label 「気がかり」 as both a [名詞]{めいし} and a [形容動詞]{けいようどうし}. 名詞: "noun" 形容動詞: "na-adjective" or "adjectival noun" 「Word X + な + Noun」 If the phrase above makes sense, then Word X can be called a 形容動詞 according to Japanese "school grammar", which is the main school of grammar that is being taught to our ...


2

It's the masu-form of the intransitive verb かかる (to relate, to concern, etc), used as a noun. 気がかり is a compound noun made of 気 (mind) + かかり (concerning). This noun + masu-form pattern is very often seen in Japanese nouns. Just to name a few: 綱引き (tug of war): 綱 (rope) + 引き (pulling) 花見 (cherry-viewing): 花 (flower) + 見 (viewing) 爪切り (nail clipper): 爪 ...



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