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8

This is an example of how 〜上{じょう} can be suffixed to various kinds of media, similar to how we say “on television” or “on the internet” in English. Note that 〜上 can also be used for books/magazines, even though it would be “in a book/magazine” in English. Examples: テレビ上に映し出される映像 ラジオ上での対談 雑誌上のインタビュー パソコン上に保存してあるファイル パンフレット上に書いてあります etc. Interestingly, ...


8

While in ordinary speech we use 論 as a suffix roughly means "theory on ~; argument for ~", in most of academic fields those ideas are conveyed by 理論 e.g. ひも理論 "string theory", 最適性理論 "optimality theory" or プロスペクト理論 "prospect theory" etc. (except for mathematics, where they seem to use 論 to translate the term "theory"). In academia, the suffix 学 is used to ...


7

Yahoo!辞書には「~で終わる単語」で検索できる機能があります。結果はこちらです。 http://dic.search.yahoo.co.jp/dsearch?p=%E3%82%81%E3%81%8F&ei=UTF-8&b=1&dic_id=jj&stype=suffix 現代の日本語で動詞として一般的に使うことがあるもの: 謎めく 色めく (※「色めき立つ」の複合語の方が一般的) 時めく (※ほぼ常にひらがなで書き、この意味で使う) 春めく / 夏めく / 秋めく / 冬めく うごめく きらめく ざわめく そよめく つやめく どよめく はためく ひしめく ふためく (※ほぼ常に「慌てふためく」で一語のようにして使う) ゆらめく よろめく ...


7

There is also the word [分野]{ぶん・や} that means field/realm/sphere. Some examples 研究分野 → field of research 彼は物理学の分野でよく知られている → He is well-known in the field of physics 彼は彫刻の分野では第一人者だ → He is second to none in the world of sculpture. Also the suffix 〜[界]{かい}. 政界 → the political world 芸能界 → the entertainment world; show businesses 業界 → ...


6

~分 means "a part/amount that corresponds to ~", "~'s fraction", etc. In this case, it refers to a part of the entire work (not a part of Volume 3 nor a part of one episode). 単行本第三巻予定分 is "the part (of the entire work) which is planned to be included in the third volume". Other examples of 分: 追加分: the added part (as opposed to the original) 来月分: the task ...


6

The easiest and surest way to do it that would leave no room for misunderstanding (and maintain at least the fine newspaper article quality) would be to say: 「新渡戸、内村(の)[両氏自身]{りょうしじしん}」 or 「新渡戸・内村両氏自身」 or 「新渡戸[及]{およ}び内村(の)両氏自身」  「両氏」 can be replaced by 「[両名]{りょうめい}」 without changing any nuance.


6

Among these scenarios, 5匹目が好きです makes sense only in Scenario 3. 5匹目が好きです never means "the fifth smallest cat" in any of these situations. "The fifth smallest cat" is translated as 5番目に小さな猫 in Japanese (general rule is found here). If you say 5番目に小さな猫が好きです, it's at least a valid and understandable Japanese sentence. Of course, a normal person will never say ...


6

The kanji 中 on the end as a kind of suffix generally has two different meanings, depending on context and how it's read. When read as ちゅう: "in the middle of doing; in the state of being", as in l'électeur's examples. When read as じゅう: "all over, throughout; sometime during", as in 体{からだ}中{じゅう} "all over the body, all throughout the body" or 今日{きょう}中{じゅう} ...


5

「~~[中]{ちゅう}」 = "~~ in progress", "~~ in session", "in the middle of ~~", etc. "We Are Open!" "Under Construction"


5

It's つうじょうばん. 版【はん】 = version, edition Although 版 is read as はん by itself, 版 in 通常版 would be read as ばん, due to rendaku phenomenon.


4

There's 圏 as in e.g. 漢字文化圏(かんじぶんかけん) and 英語圏(えいごけん).


4

つうじょうばん. For some reason this kanji always exhibits rendaku voicing when in suffix environment. 通常版【つうじょうばん】, 限定版【げんていばん】 "limited edition", 保存版【ほぞんばん】 "collector's edition", 英語版【えいごばん】 "English version", キリシタン版【ばん】 "(Medieval Japan) Jesuit Mission presses" etc. And as a counter-word: 1版 いっぱん 2版 にはん 3版 さんぱん or さんはん 4版 よんぱん or よんはん 5版 ごはん 6版 ろっぱん or ろくはん ...


4

The suffix -chan is not inherently gendered (Japanese has no grammatical gender), but by the quality of the diminutive, it is primarily used by and for females. For example, -chan is often used as a suffix for girls' names, where for boys' names the corresponding suffix would be -kun. The suffix is used, much like the diminutive, to "cutify" people (e.g. ...


4

~ながら is like "while", and ~ざまに is more like "the (very) moment~" "just as~". You'll see it in (set?) phrases like 「すれ違いざまに」「追い抜きざまに」「追い越しざまに」「振り向きざまに」 most of the time, at least in modern Japanese. You wouldn't rephrase them as すれ違いながら, 追い越しながら, etc. (These would make sense, but the nuance may be a bit different). You would say 「お茶を飲みながら」「テレビを見ながら」 but not ...


4

As Brandon says the suffix, なおす means “to redo” as its Kanji writing “直す” means “to redress, correct” and かえす means “to repeat” as its Kanji writing “返す” means “to return.” Your example (1) 好きな曲を何度も聞きかえしていた is alright. It says you were listening to your favorite song repeatedly. But (2) 好きな曲を聞きかえしおわれなかった sounds odd and strange to me. Though I don’t know ...


3

彼は新しい車をほしがっている can mean He wants a new car (= …車が欲しいと思っている) He is showing his desire for a new car 彼は新しい車がほしそうだ means "He looks desirous of a new car". 彼は新しい車をほしがっていそうだ is usually taken as something like "I assume he is now begging a new car".


3

You've noticed that there are masculine and feminine endings, which is a good start. There is also a diminutive ending: ちゃん{chan}. Diminutives indicate something small or cute. ちゃん{chan} is most often used when referring to children, or other people or animals for whom a diminutive makes sense -- such as someone's cute dog, or Hello Kitty, or a pop ...


3

俺ァ、ポッポヤだから、身うちのことでなくわけいかんしょ。 is a collapsed/colloquial way of saying: 俺は、ポッポ屋だから、[身内]{みうち}の[事]{こと}で[泣]{な}く[訳]{わけ}に(は)いかないでしょう。 The いかん is 行かん(=行かない), and the いかん in the linked question is [如何]{いかん}. ~わけに(は)いかない means "can't~", "not supposed to~" or "not allowed to~". The しょ at the end is Hokkaido dialect for でしょう (See naruto's comment).


3

Yes, [之助]{の・すけ} is appended to [承知]{しょう・ち} in order to make the word sound humorous, regardless of whether it actually sounds funny or not. It's a kind of play on words. During the Edo period ([江戸]{え・ど}[時代]{じ・だい} 1603 - 1868), many words were modified for fun. Turning a plain word into a name-style word without changing the meaning (or with growing the ...


2

It would need to be 「[商業上]{しょうぎょうじょう}の[目的]{もくてき}で」 with 「上」 to mean "for commercial purposes". 「商業の目的」 sounds too "grandiose" to my Japanese ear. That is like saying "The Purpose of Commerce" in a much more philosophical sense. If one were talking about advertisement or its place in commerce as an everyday kind of phenomenon, 「商業上の目的」 would sound much ...


2

Practically all monolingual dictionaries will label 「気がかり」 as both a [名詞]{めいし} and a [形容動詞]{けいようどうし}. 名詞: "noun" 形容動詞: "na-adjective" or "adjectival noun" 「Word X + な + Noun」 If the phrase above makes sense, then Word X can be called a 形容動詞 according to Japanese "school grammar", which is the main school of grammar that is being taught to our ...


2

It's the masu-form of the intransitive verb かかる (to relate, to concern, etc), used as a noun. 気がかり is a compound noun made of 気 (mind) + かかり (concerning). This noun + masu-form pattern is very often seen in Japanese nouns. Just to name a few: 綱引き (tug of war): 綱 (rope) + 引き (pulling) 花見 (cherry-viewing): 花 (flower) + 見 (viewing) 爪切り (nail clipper): 爪 ...


2

It is not that it can't be used with nouns. It cannot be used with anything that is inanimate. Thus, since a picture is inanimate, 絵画たち would be ungrammatical. You should just use 絵画 regardless if it's just one or many. There won't be misunderstandings if the number isn't important, and if it is important, you should specify it, even if the number is general ...


2

1) I know that some people like to categorize な-adjectives in this way, but IMHO it's silly. There are many な-adjectives that don't work as nouns without the な, and there are many nouns that don't work as な-adjectives by adding な. 2) さ is quite productive, so in general, I want to say yes. However: Although everybody will understand 人気さ (and I can find ...


2

之助 was a common suffix for generating nick names. The real name was not widely used and this kind of names was used. Well, I think English also has a suffix to make words like name like "No problemo!" This is a phrase came from yedo period to make it sound humorous. This phrase is so old but still somewhat used in informal situation, sometimes "がってん承知の助." ...



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