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11

「め」 is a suffix of contempt when attached to a noun or another person's name. 「この[犬]{いぬ}め!」= "You stupid dog!" 「[許]{ゆる}せん、[田中]{たなか}め!」= "Will never forgive Tanaka the bastard!" Translation is an art. You could use whatever word you feel appropriate for the context that expresses contempt, scorn, disdain, etc. Note that it is a suffix of humility when ...


8

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


7

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


6

The かん here is 間 in kanji, and this is used as a suffix to refer to a span of time. ろくしゅう in your sentence is spelled 六週 in kanji and means "six weeks", but in a way that is more ambiguous than the English. Various suffixes can be added on the end to make things more specific, like 目{め} to mean "the sixth week", or 分{ぶん} to indicate six weeks' worth of ...


6

It comes from the Classical honorific verb 「[賜]{たま}ふ」, which means "to give (from one in a higher position to one in the lower)". The Modern counterpart is 「お[与]{あた}えになる」 or 「[下]{くだ}さる」. The 「ふ」 has become 「う」 over time as you probably know. This verb can be used as an honorific subsidiary verb following another verb. The Modern counterparts are ...


6

X在住 is the closest answer for your question. This can be used like 私は東京在住です。 and 東京在住の日本人. Also X居住 is acceptable. The difference between them is where the subject is living, which here means X. X in X在住 are like country, province, city or village. X in X居住 are like house, apartment.


5

It's contracted with the particle は: オレたち+は → オレたちゃ


5

While in ordinary speech we use 論 as a suffix roughly means "theory on ~; argument for ~", in most of academic fields those ideas are conveyed by 理論 e.g. ひも理論 "string theory", 最適性理論 "optimality theory" or プロスペクト理論 "prospect theory" etc. (except for mathematics, where they seem to use 論 to translate the term "theory"). In academia, the suffix 学 is used to ...


4

Sama (様【さま】) is a markedly more respectful version of san. It is used mainly to refer to people much higher in rank than oneself, toward one's guests or customers (such as a sports venue announcer addressing members of the audience), and sometimes toward people one greatly admires and can be used for either gender. See the Wikipedia article Japanese ...


3

Generally there are three choices for the kind of quantifiers addressed here. Although the OP's question uses numeral quantifiers, the same would be true for others, such as すべて, etc. Attributive position That is the case where the quantifier, marked by の, precedes the noun, e.g. the OP's third example. Composition Composition is when the quantifier ...


3

They are exactly same. Appending さん after a store is common. The latter is a more polite form. However, the latter is not used in formal writing.


3

It comes from the verb 給【たま】う via ウ音便. Other examples: 問【と】う → 問うた, しまう → しもうた, 言【い】う → 言【ゆ】うた. This is a feature of medieval Japanese and persists in western dialects of modern Japanese; in standard Japanese it is only found in fossilised forms.


2

It is not that it can't be used with nouns. It cannot be used with anything that is inanimate. Thus, since a picture is inanimate, 絵画たち would be ungrammatical. You should just use 絵画 regardless if it's just one or many. There won't be misunderstandings if the number isn't important, and if it is important, you should specify it, even if the number is general ...


2

1) I know that some people like to categorize な-adjectives in this way, but IMHO it's silly. There are many な-adjectives that don't work as nouns without the な, and there are many nouns that don't work as な-adjectives by adding な. 2) さ is quite productive, so in general, I want to say yes. However: Although everybody will understand 人気さ (and I can find ...



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