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30

と, ば: The main clause must be a constant non-volitional reaction to the conditional clause unless the conditional clause shows state or if the subjects of the two clauses differ. お金を入れてボタンを押すと、切符が出ます。 'When you put in money and press the button, a ticket will come out.' 春になると、観光客が増えます。 'When spring arrives, tourists increase.' ...


18

It depends on the meaning. 中 used to mean "during / in the process of" must be pronounced ちゅう (as in ジョン's post) インストール中【ちゅう】 now installing 読込【よみこみ】中【ちゅう】 now loading 建築【けんちく】中【ちゅう】 under construction But in other uses, such as "all throughout" or "out of (all the)", it is commonly read じゅう (although it seems that ちゅう is also an option?): ...


17

行ったら - "if you (happen to) go" (simple possibility) 行くなら - "if you're going (anyway)" (often in the sense of while you're at it) 行けば - "if you('d) go" (emphasis on the condition that must be fulfilled before something happens) 行くと - "when you go" ("…you'll find that…", focuses on what happens when the condition is fulfilled) 行くんだったら - "if you're about to ...


16

It's short for の家{うち}. You will normally see the abbreviation んち: (1a) 俺の家に来い。 (1b) 俺んちに来い。 (2a) お前の家に行きたいなぁ。 (2b) お前んちに行きたいなぁ。 But in cases where there is already an ん before the abbreviation (like おばあちゃん ends in ん in this case) we just see ち: (3a) タモリさんの家に行きたい。 (3b) タモリさんちに行きたい。 (4a) 明日麻美ちゃんの家に行く。 (4b) 明日麻美ちゃんちに行く。 So your ...


13

込む by itself can be interpreted as a intransitive verb to mean "jammed in", "packed in", "crowded". For example 電車が込む However, when 込む is used with compound verbs it can have 3 different interpretations. ‘to enter; put something in/into’ Implies a physical transition where an object (or a person) shifts from a place into an enclosed location. Examples ...


12

的: -ish, -like 日本的思考 'Japanese way of thinking' 風: Intentionally or unintentionally resembling the style but not itself. Pseudo. 日本風の料理店 'Pseudo-Japanese style restaurant' 流 School. Classification of styles that are inherited (occasionally secretly within a family). 甲賀流忍者 'Kouga-school ninja' 裏千家流 'Urasenke-school tea ceremony' 様式 ...


11

The most important thing about げ is that it describes an observed quality. That is, you cannot use げ to refer to yourself: ○ 毎週楽しく聴かせていただいています。 I enjoy listening every week. × 毎週楽しげに聴かせていただいています。 (incorrect) The reason for this is that げ (which in kanji would be 気, but it's never written in kanji) is defined as そうだ or らしいようす, according to ...


11

The biggest mistake you have made is in trusting that translation, which is not even close to the original. コケ does not mean "fool"; It is not even a noun. It is from the verb こける, which means "to trip over", "to fall down", etc. っぷり comes from ふ り, which means "the manner / way in which one performs an action". 食べっぷりがいい, for instance, means that someone ...


10

It is たいおうずみ. More generally, the suffix 済 or 済み is read as ずみ. This is an example of rendaku.


9

Totally unrelated. 山 さん [mountain] is a Chinese word "shān" assimilated in Japanese. さん as a honorific suffix is an old さま undergone some phonetical change. There are many homophones in Japanese besides that.


9

The article at Wikipedia covers the common ones as well as a decent number of extended ones, and lists the exceptions for days, people, etc. as well as rendaku and number word changes (e.g. 300->san*bya*ku, 4:00-> *yo*ji).


9

I liked the practical nature of the other answers, here's a more precise explanation I posted under a dupe thread. Yeah, these are not so easy as there is a complex set of circumstances where you can use one over the other. I'll try to cover the most common usages and differences. ~ば is used in the case of a consistent relationship of cause and effect. ...


9

The short answer to your initial question is no. The historical/etymological spelling of 〜ましょう was 〜ませう, which is the expected form of the volitional, since the irrealis (未然形) stem of 〜ます is 〜ませ. Regular sound change explains the rest: せう becomes しょう. The same story applies to the consonant-stem (五段活用) verbs: the old spelling for 行こう was 行かう (as seen here) ...


8

A方{ほう}がB means "more B if A" or "Ber if A": 早く行った方が良かったでしょう。 It would have been better [more good] if (we/you/I etc) had gone early, would it not? The 方 here indicates a direction/side when comparing 2 or more things ([3] (イ) of this definition at Daijirin), in this case implying going early would have been better than going later.


8

I would translate those as 行ったら - If you went (there), ... 行くなら - If you going to go (there), ... 行けば - If you go (there), (you will) .... 行くんだったら - If you are about to go (there), ... 行くのなら - If you (have plan/are thinking) to go (there), ... 行くとしたら - (Let's say) if you go (there), ... 行くことになったら - If you have to go (there), ...


8

とはいえ=といっても (approximately), meaning "although." It's similar to 〜くあれ=〜くても or AあれB=AあってもB, in that it's a written-style usage of the imperative that functions as a concessive. That is, it's conceding something: although, though, even though, yet, however, etc. 春【はる】とはいえまだ寒【さむ】い。 = Although it's spring, it's still cold. Keep in mind that this isn't 言【い】う in ...


7

There are entire dictionaries for this (数え方の辞典). Here's a link to a whole bunch. 個 (ko) is the most commonly used one. Japanese people use it often even with words that should have a special counter if it's a less-often used one. It can sometimes be annoying even for them to think of the proper 数詞! Here are most common ones I can think of: 人 (nin) for ...


7

Written Japanese contains a syllabary (like an alphabet) called Kana. All of the "letters" in this syllabary, with the exception of the "letter" "N" (ん/ン) end in a vowel. Thus anytime a foreign word ends in a consonant (with the exception of "N"), it is natural for a Japanese speaker to pronounce this consonant with a vowel after it. This is not a question ...


7

Yes. There seems to be no limitation on the combination of i-adjectives and 目. Yes. For example, 静かめの曲 It is not interchangable. As you already wrote in the question, 目 weakens the attribute expressed by the adjective. Therefore, the adverbial usage ...目に will in general be a weakening of the adverbial usage of ...く. 早く走った 'ran early' 早めに走った 'ran ...


7

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


7

After a few minutes of murmuring to myself, I am going to say that basically, the 「~~がり[屋]{や}」 form will stand if the 「~~がり」form stands with an adjective. The naturalness and frequency of use of the 「~~がり屋」 form as an independent word look to be in direct proportion to those of its 「~~がり」form. Among the ones that might not make their way into the ...


6

It does not seem to me that you have any trouble translating the sentence in question, but here is my translation. やってみよう:ブラウンコーパスのニュースとロマンスの 2 つのジャンルのデータを利用して、どの曜日がもっとも新聞っぽく、どの曜日がもっともロマンチックかを調べてみよう。 Try this: Using the data of the genres News and Romance in the Brown Corpus, find out which day of the week is the most newspaper-ish and which day is ...


6

Context is important. With passive verbs you should look for a に before the verb that will mark the person or thing that performs the verb. This is not the same as the subject of the verb. For example, if you see the short phrase: お兄さんに食べられた。 You can figure out pretty quickly from the に that this is not the potential. The subject of the sentence is an ...


6

They are the same ("seems like") but 〜げ has more of a connotation of 「それらしい」 or 「っぽい」with the げ coming from the character 気 as in 気分. I remember it as "that sort of feeling". Arguably this makes 〜げ more subjective whereas 〜そう is more objective but only so far as the observation is shared with others in the same/similar view point as the speaker. A word ...


5

Both readings can be suffixes and both can be used in many of the common constructions of 得る: 当を得る (to be in order):【とうをうる】or 【とうをえる】 あり得る (to be probable): 【ありえる】or 【ありうる】 etc. etc. Yahoo dict says: ◆[...] また、終止するときは文語形の「うる」となることがあり、特に5の終止形・連体形は「うる」を用いることが多い。→う(得)る


5

It is not unseen, but it is incorrect, or at least different from the traditional usage of どころか. As you said, the correct expression is ジムは日本語で会話ができるどころか、簡単な挨拶もできない。 Another correct way is ジムは日本語で会話ができないばかりか、簡単な挨拶もできない。


5

The primary difference is that 出す implies something sudden or unexpected. For example, consider the sentence 私は泣き出した and 私は泣きはじめた. In the first we get a natural expression which implies that you (beyond your control) started crying. The second one is grammatically correct, but by using 始めた you're implying a sense of purpose, like you're making yourself cry ...


5

I think that it is simply a typo for “自分たちの,” unless it is a dialectal vocabulary which I am not aware of. The usage to indicate exasperation which you mentioned in the question probably refers to the たら which was originally といったら, but たら in your example cannot be this word because this word cannot be followed by case particles such as の.


5

Usually it means to do something more thoroughly, completely, or intensely. Sometimes it can also be like adding "into" after the verb: 押す, "to push" becomes 押し込む, "to push into."



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