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9

As @Flaw flawlessly explains, Japanese sentences can have clausal predicates. This is what causes what is commonly known as double-subject constructions, although I believe "clausal predicates" really illustrates the structure better. I assume you have heard constructions like 彼は髪が長い He has long hair Some teachers/textbooks might explain this away by ...


7

Just like adjectives, verbs in Japanese can be used to describe nouns. In this situation, the 連体形 of the verb is used, which happen to be the same as 終止形 (the form used to end sentence) in modern Japanese. In this formation, a sentence is not formed. It only gets a descriptive phrase, which can be used as part of the sentence (as a noun phrase). So the ...


7

I think this is how: Consider first Clause1: 家賃が安い. The structure is Subject1+が+Predicate1. Subject1: 家賃 Predicate1: 安い Now consider Clause2: (都心より)郊外のほうが家賃が安い. The structure is Subject2+が+Predicate2, where Predicate2 is Clause1. Subject2: 郊外のほう Predicate2: 家賃が安い Predicate: The part of a sentence or clause saying something about the subject


4

I think your confusion may be arising from thinking that が is a prepositional particle. It is not preposed(placed before a word) to the verb. It is a post-positional subject marker, it is postposed(placed after a word) after the subject. By extension, there is no requirement for が to immediately precede the verb. The element of Xが may be freely moved around ...


3

I don't see anything wrong with your translation (except 外国人 = foreign people) When the action is directed towards someone from your in-group ([内]{うち}/ウチ). Uchi-soto そのお[礼]{れい}に means そのお礼として, in return (for~). 参考:お礼として in Weblio breakdown: その its お礼(≒[返礼]{へんれい}, お[返]{かえ}し) reward, return(favor, gift...) に/として as


3

There are many instances where の and が could both technically be used, but where one is more natural-sounding (or seems more relevant to the intent of the sentence) than the other. I'd think I'd say that this is probably one of those situations, though I'd never say it the second way, personally; I'd always use の. The clause 「彼女がどんな困難からも逃げない」 is most ...



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