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9

Because Chinese doesn't have voiced consonants. In Chinese, voiced /b/d/g/ are just variants of their voiceless counterparts. So you can't hear the difference between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds. It's hard to explain and learn by text. Instead, I recommend you practice it by listening and imitating. The site 首都大学東京 mic-J 日本語教育 AV リソース may be ...


7

Use 「3つのグラフ」 or 「3枚【まい】のグラフ」. Whichever is OK, but maybe the latter will sound just a little bit more formal.


3

If I ignore semantics and discuss syntax only, I think that it went like this: もの was originally 物, a lexical noun (実質名詞), which could be modified by a relative clause ending in 用言の連体形. It was then grammaticalized into a formal noun (形式名詞), losing its literal meaning but still appearing in the same syntactic position, after a relative clause ending in ...


2

As you may have guessed, you got the bold part wrong. This is what it actually is: 鬼は外!鬼は水なんて飲む資格ないんだよ!あっち行け! oni ha soto! oni ha mizu nante nomu shikaku nain'dayo! acchi ike!


2

Yes, saying those as the very first word after the stimulus is very common even in real life. 痛【いた】っ! 痛たたた… いててて… 寒【さむ】っ! 臭【くさ】っ! 熱【あつ】っ! 熱つつつ… あちちち… うるさっ! 汚【きたな】っ! 痒【かゆ】っ! 旨【うま】っ! We don't say 寒むむむむ or 臭ささささ for some reason... perhaps because they're difficult to pronounce? And as you can see in the last example, you can sometimes ...


1

Yes. But there are many, many variations as you might have guessed. For example, あっつっ!instead of あつっ!and so on. There are also regional differences. For certain regions in Japan, さむい is spoken さぶい。 So, さぶっ!


1

Interesting discussion. It has been a while since I lived in the land of the rising sun (1973-79). My language skills (although greatly deteriorated with age:-)) were gleaned from the surfing and farming types from Miura Hanto. I always used naruhdo in the context of "interesting" or "oh, I see". For example, if I had no bottle opener and someone shows ...


1

It sounds like much of what you are facing is a cultural more than syntactic problem. A コンビニ is not a bodega; there's no chummy socialization that happens there. All of the language I use in the convenience store is transactional: If you need to ask them to check out: お[会計]{かいけい}お[願]{ねが}いします。 / To indicate the method of payment: ~~で[払]{はら}います。 ...



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