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16

Your two examples are incorrect in the “standard” dialect. Some dialects (such as the Gunma dialect and the Saitama dialect) use ん instead of の in a question as in your first example. The second example may also be used in some dialects.


13

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


12

Disclaimer: I'm just a random Japanese native and my answer below isn't based on formal research or anything like that. The feminine 「わ」 seem to have become almost extinct. You see it in text books and novels, but it's extremely rare to hear people actually using it. The kansai 「わ」 is different from the feminine 「わ」. The feminine 「わ」 is used in 標準語 or ...


9

As opposed to 「か」, which is open-ended and can have any sort of answer, 「かい」 is expected to have an answer in the affirmative or negative only, that is, yes or no, with subsequent explanation optional. Example:  誰か来たのか  誰か来たのかい  誰が来たのか × 誰が来たのかい


9

Borrowing from page 277 of this grammar textbook and the Daijisen entry flamingspinach linked to, ぞ is a (primarily masculine) sentence-ending particle used to express strong intent (そうはさせないぞ), persuade someone to go along with your action (そろそろ行くぞ), or (directed at yourself) indicate your judgment or resolution (うまくいったぞ). なあ can usually substitute for ぞ ...


9

なの relates to the ~のだ construction, and as such provides explanatory, secondary, or supporting information (which could be a reason, a cause, or other fact the speaker feels would aid in the listener's understanding). Note that the な is only used if the preceding word is a noun or な-adjective. Following a verb or い-adjective, only の is used: ...


9

We are actually discussing TWO different kinds of 「や」 here, which is probably why you are more confused than you should be. In 「くつろいでくれや」, the 「や」 is a colloquial sentence-ending particle for 1) imperative, 2) invitation and 3) request. You are saying "(Please) make yourself at home." In 「それが実はアイロンではないからや」, the 「や」 is a dialectal sentence-ender mostly for ...


8

I did a search on this and found the following: 昔、TBSの番組「ザ・ベスト10」で久米宏が なに気に 「〜かしら」と言ったのを見て初めは かなり衝撃でしたが アナウンサーの業界では以外と使われている様です。 あと学者や解説者など、有識者や育ちのいい人が 今でも比較的違和感なく使っていますね。 Loose translation: "Back in the days, Kume Hiroshi used it quite frequently in the show "The Best 10". While it may come as a shock to those who first experience it, it's ...


7

if you wanted to end with just ん without the です you should probably just use the informal of んです which is の 明日学校にいくの? 明日学校に行かないと思う、、、風邪引いたの。 ん like tsuyoshi said, is a dialect version of の seen in various regions of Japan. While it doesn't seem to be used in Aichi, all of my co-workers know of it. So it could be said that you can use it and you will be ...


7

Well, you are always free to use かしら, whether if people think if you are a weird is a different matter. It's not as much as being inappropriate(in a social sense) as to sounding weird. Linguistically it's usually used by female speakers and male speakers who are cross-dressers/gay as far as I know.


7

The のぉ is what we normally write as 「のう」, one of the sentence ending particles (終助詞). I think it sounds rather archaic, now we think it's only used by older people (but I doubt it's actually used daily anymore... I think we only see it in books, anime or manga...), and younger people don't use it in "normal" conversation. I think it's probably the archaic ...


6

If you drop か, your rising intonation will indicate a question. 今何時ですか。- canonical polite form 今何時です- slightly less formal, feminine form. 今何時- casual 今何時だ- demanding and rude. Doesn't require rising intonation. Just watch something with gangsters and you'll hear it :)


6

Although these sentences are nearly always translated as questions, the (admittedly informal and possibly colloquial) usage of っけ followed by か suggests that there is a difference at least on some level. In my experience, "questions" formed via the っけ particle are often rhetorical -- but just as often, they are interpreted as a request for information. ...


6

This is not really an answer, but I would like to draw the attention to the distinction between speech in fictional work and speech in the real world. In fictional work, there is a set of words (most notably personal pronouns and function words) which are considered to be typical to a certain group of people, regardless of whether the people in the same ...


5

As was pointed out (probably by Tsuyoshi Ito) in an answer/comment to another question on this site (which I cannot find right away), the gender connotation of な and ね depends on whether it is attached to a clause or a noun. When they are attached to a clause, the connotation is not that strong, and can usually be dismissed. When they are attached to a noun, ...


5

You can also use っけ with です・ます, as in そうでしたっけ If you want to avoid っけ for its familiarity (as when talking with your boss), I would use よね instead of っけ, which can also be used in conjunction with both the です・ます forms and the "dictionary" forms, e.g. そうでしたよね そうだったよね There are also (の)か, かな or かね, which can be used in a similar way.


5

In Kansai-ben ですよ can, according to Ikue Shingu's Kansai Grammar Index, become どすえ どっせ だっせ でっせ but I would consider it as raw Kansai-ben. You almost never hear it (I never did) and it can stay as ですよ. Kansai-ben is also the intonation, choice of words and in other parts of the sentence than the end copula. だよ on the other hand becomes in the most ...


5

You may want to look here and here. Outside of polite language, か should be used with care. Generally, it has a very masculine and rough sounding atmosphere. Generally, in informal language, it only used when being very direct or sarcastic. Here's a good example taken from the second link: そんなのは、あるかよ!(Do you think (I) would have that kind of thing!?) ...


5

How about んだけど 彼が出て行けばいいんだけど。 あの建物さえなければ、きれいな景色が見えるはずなんだけど。 欲しいといえば、買ってあげたんだけど。 Maybe no real synonym, but it is also a conjunction with the rest of the sentence omitted. のに means "although" and けど means more "but", but I guess that is close enough. In your last example せっかく…のに is a set phrase and のに can't be removed so easily. I'm also wondering ...


5

ぜ and ぞ are sentence-final particles used (primarily) by male speakers which are more colloquial versions of the particle よ. In order of decreasing politeness, they are 逃げるよ。 逃げるぞ。 逃げるぜ。 The addition of よ・ぞ・ぜ give the statement an assertive feel, maybe like an exclamation mark or adding something like "hey!" (although that's already represented in ...


4

なの is kind of a conclusion used at the end of explanation with a calm/quit sense. Example., 彼女は大学生なのよ She is university student, you know. It is just combination of two particles な and の. なのです is polite form, and なの is same with なのだ just omitting だ after that. sometime it is used as 〜なんです。 なの is used by females most of the time, but なんです may use by ...


4

Not that this answers your question, but it's quite possible. In the Kansai area (and possibly elsewhere) it's quite normal for men to end sentences in わ. So maybe there are places where they use かしら as well. Of course, you (presumably you're a male) should probably stay away from it until you know for sure.


4

だっけ denotes a question of the form "(proposed fact) ... is this so?", where (proposed fact) is a fact that the questioner once knew but has since forgotten. It is not rhetorical, at least not in the sense that the questioner (now) knows the answer. The questioner is no longer sure of the answer, and is seeking confirmation. 外国のレストランでのチップって 10% だっけ? : I ...


4

In general, sentence final particle use varies a lot depending on the region. In Kyoto, where I live, for example, men and women both use わ freely, and even throw out the occasional 「わよ」. I think it sounds softer, more restrained and less insistent than よ but that's only my personal opinion. I haven't seen a thorough breakdown of the usage for the two, but I ...


4

I'm not so sure about the folksiness, but it's definitely very informal. I've mainly heard it used in speaking to children and intimates. I don't think it would be used toward social superiors in most situations. By the way, there's an analogous variant of the copula, だい, as in 「ママのおにぎりはどうだい?」.


4

You know that you can use "koto" or "no" or "mono" to nominalize a proposition, don't you? Well, you can with "ka" as well, when the proposition is a question, direct or indirect. For example: いつ行くか教えてください. "Tell me when you leave." (Which is nothing else than "Xを教えてください" but where you drop the を because of か.) ポイントは、いつ行くかです。"The point is when you leave." ...


4

It's very common to say 「~するかだ」. It would be easier for you to get the meaning by inserting 「が重要/問題」 after か. 隅の黒一子が次にアタリですが、ここをどう考えるかです 隅の黒一子が次にアタリですが、ここをどう考えるかが重要/問題です The translation would be like "Regarding the black piece in the corner which becomes Atari in the next move, it is important how you think here."


4

なのね lends the same emphasis to a sentence as なんですね. However, なのね is more conversational, informal and can come across as feminine. According to my teacher, people who end all their sentences with this kind of emphasis in real life can come across as self-important, presumably because it sounds like they're attaching added importance to everything they say. ...


4

To add to what 無色受想行識 said, の is regularly used in conjunction with interrogative words, such as in どこに行くの?or 何を食べるの? Often when no interrogative word is used, rising intonation will mark that the sentence is a question, such as in 明日、パーティに行く? Additionally, の can be used to indicate surprise or disbelief. For example, A: 明日、パーティに行くよ。 B: 行くの? In this ...


3

The original question basically comes down to finding an "honorific" way (yes, that dreaded 敬語 thing) of saying だっけ? or でしたっけ? I would say a good and polite alternative would be to replace those expressions with でしょうか? To say テストは次の月曜日{げつようび}だっけ? you say テストは次の月曜日でしょうか? Of course depending on what comes before だっけ and also to whom you are ...



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