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17

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


17

Disclaimer: I'm just a random Japanese native and my answer below isn't based on formal research or anything like that. The feminine 「わ」 seems to have become almost extinct. You see it in text books and novels, but it's extremely rare to hear people actually using it. The kansai 「わ」 is different from the feminine 「わ」. The feminine 「わ」 is used in 標準語 or ...


16

Your two examples are incorrect in the “standard” dialect. Some dialects (such as the Gunma dialect and the Saitama dialect) use ん instead of の in a question as in your first example. The second example may also be used in some dialects.


11

なの relates to the ~のだ construction, and as such provides explanatory, secondary, or supporting information (which could be a reason, a cause, or other fact the speaker feels would aid in the listener's understanding). Note that the な is only used if the preceding word is a noun or な-adjective. Following a verb or い-adjective, only の is used: ...


11

「やな」 is a Kansai affirmative sentence-ender just like 「だな」 for Kanto. 「[久]{ひさ}しぶりやな。」 = "Long time no see, yeah?" or just "Long time no see!" 「いい[感]{かん}じやなぁ。」 = "That's cool.", "That's pretty good.", etc. Real Kansai people would use ええ, not いい for the second phrase, though.


10

Borrowing from page 277 of this grammar textbook and the Daijisen entry flamingspinach linked to, ぞ is a (primarily masculine) sentence-ending particle used to express strong intent (そうはさせないぞ), persuade someone to go along with your action (そろそろ行くぞ), or (directed at yourself) indicate your judgment or resolution (うまくいったぞ). なあ can usually substitute for ぞ ...


10

We are actually discussing TWO different kinds of 「や」 here, which is probably why you are more confused than you should be. In 「くつろいでくれや」, the 「や」 is a colloquial sentence-ending particle for 1) imperative, 2) invitation and 3) request. You are saying "(Please) make yourself at home." In 「それが実はアイロンではないからや」, the 「や」 is a dialectal sentence-ender mostly for ...


8

I did a search on this and found the following: 昔、TBSの番組「ザ・ベスト10」で久米宏が なに気に 「〜かしら」と言ったのを見て初めは かなり衝撃でしたが アナウンサーの業界では以外と使われている様です。 あと学者や解説者など、有識者や育ちのいい人が 今でも比較的違和感なく使っていますね。 Loose translation: "Back in the days, Kume Hiroshi used it quite frequently in the show "The Best 10". While it may come as a shock to those who first experience it, it's ...


7

As opposed to 「か」, which is open-ended and can have any sort of answer, 「かい」 is expected to have an answer in the affirmative or negative only, that is, yes or no, with subsequent explanation optional. Example:  誰か来たのか  誰か来たのかい  誰が来たのか × 誰が来たのかい


7

Well, you are always free to use かしら, whether if people think if you are a weird is a different matter. It's not as much as being inappropriate(in a social sense) as to sounding weird. Linguistically it's usually used by female speakers and male speakers who are cross-dressers/gay as far as I know.


7

"Instead of 「か」, real questions in casual speech are usually asked with the explanatory の particle or nothing at all except for a rise in intonation" http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/question


7

かも is short for かも知れない【しれない】, which loosely translates as "probably". In this case, "It might well be the beginning of a solution," would be a good translation.


6

if you wanted to end with just ん without the です you should probably just use the informal of んです which is の 明日学校にいくの? 明日学校に行かないと思う、、、風邪引いたの。 ん like tsuyoshi said, is a dialect version of の seen in various regions of Japan. While it doesn't seem to be used in Aichi, all of my co-workers know of it. So it could be said that you can use it and you will be ...


6

Although these sentences are nearly always translated as questions, the (admittedly informal and possibly colloquial) usage of っけ followed by か suggests that there is a difference at least on some level. In my experience, "questions" formed via the っけ particle are often rhetorical -- but just as often, they are interpreted as a request for information. ...


6

If you drop か, your rising intonation will indicate a question. 今何時ですか。- canonical polite form 今何時です- slightly less formal, feminine form. 今何時- casual 今何時だ- demanding and rude. Doesn't require rising intonation. Just watch something with gangsters and you'll hear it :)


6

This is not really an answer, but I would like to draw the attention to the distinction between speech in fictional work and speech in the real world. In fictional work, there is a set of words (most notably personal pronouns and function words) which are considered to be typical to a certain group of people, regardless of whether the people in the same ...


6

かい is used to soften the rudeness of か in informal speech. Sentences like "見たか?" or "好きか?" are harsh to the ear, and using かい instead of か is thus nicer to the listener.


6

It means ”だね”, and if I am not mistaken can be heard in the 関西 area. For example, せやな is the same as そうだね. So, いい感じやなぁ would be the same as いい感じだね.


6

Despite how it looks, っ doesn't only double the consonant "t" but is an all-around geminator used with most of Japanese consonants. See the Wikipedia article. And for the last part 「っけ」, this page will be helpful. ProTip™: Although Wikipedia says you can't use っ with some consonants, the younger generation seems have acquired many untraditional ...


5

As a sentence-final particle, it's わ, not は. See more about in this post and this post.


5

ぜ and ぞ are sentence-final particles used (primarily) by male speakers which are more colloquial versions of the particle よ. In order of decreasing politeness, they are 逃げるよ。 逃げるぞ。 逃げるぜ。 The addition of よ・ぞ・ぜ give the statement an assertive feel, maybe like an exclamation mark or adding something like "hey!" (although that's already represented in ...


5

You may want to look here and here. Outside of polite language, か should be used with care. Generally, it has a very masculine and rough sounding atmosphere. Generally, in informal language, it only used when being very direct or sarcastic. Here's a good example taken from the second link: そんなのは、あるかよ!(Do you think (I) would have that kind of thing!?) ...


5

In Kansai-ben ですよ can, according to Ikue Shingu's Kansai Grammar Index, become どすえ どっせ だっせ でっせ but I would consider it as raw Kansai-ben. You almost never hear it (I never did) and it can stay as ですよ. Kansai-ben is also the intonation, choice of words and in other parts of the sentence than the end copula. だよ on the other hand becomes in the most ...


5

One is feminine and the other is just very emphatic. Both are particles so both can be used in the same context. The wa used by males is likely to be used with less formal language, but only because of the common language of its users, not any grammatical constraint.


5

You can also use っけ with です・ます, as in そうでしたっけ If you want to avoid っけ for its familiarity (as when talking with your boss), I would use よね instead of っけ, which can also be used in conjunction with both the です・ます forms and the "dictionary" forms, e.g. そうでしたよね そうだったよね There are also (の)か, かな or かね, which can be used in a similar way.


5

How about んだけど 彼が出て行けばいいんだけど。 あの建物さえなければ、きれいな景色が見えるはずなんだけど。 欲しいといえば、買ってあげたんだけど。 Maybe no real synonym, but it is also a conjunction with the rest of the sentence omitted. のに means "although" and けど means more "but", but I guess that is close enough. In your last example せっかく…のに is a set phrase and のに can't be removed so easily. I'm also wondering ...



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