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22

According to this page, the following types of characters are allowed in names: 名づけ(命名)に使える文字と記号 ひらがな(ゐ・ゑも含む) カタカナ(ヰ・ヱも含む) 「ー」(音をのばすときに使う。例:リリー、サリー) 「ゝ」(一つ前の字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:なゝえ) 「ゞ」(一つ前の字に濁音を付けて繰り返しのとき使う。例:みすゞ) 「々」((一つ前の漢字の繰り返しのとき使う。例:奈々) So that's hiragana, katakana, extension, and repetition marks. Valid examples are given for each in the ...


17

Your question body contradicts the title, so I'll answer both questions: Advantages of roomaji (I never thought I'd say this!): No need to learn new characters Can be "read" by most people, even if not understood. Although anybody who doesn't know Japanese will get even the pronunciation wrong. Disadvantages of roomaji: Complete inability to read and ...


16

I know very little about Aikido and can only explain general facts about the Japanese language. “Tori” and “dori” in these example are the noun form of the verb toru (取る; take, grab). In isolation, this noun form is read as “tori.” Both Katate Tori and Katate Dori are compound words made of katate (片手; one hand) and tori. However, in Japanese, the first ...


15

You are looking at this from the perspective of someone with a reasonable knowledge of Japanese, but romaji is wider in application than that. It is often read by people who have no knowledge of the language, perhaps not even a desire to learn it. In fact, those people may be the main readers of romaji. The advantage of Hepburn over Nihon-shiki is largely ...


15

In reference to Sawa's request for an example, キャンディ is a case of キャ being used to transcribe English ca. I asked my Japanese teacher exactly this question many years ago. The reply was that the vowel in English candy is higher (in phonetic terms) than the low front vowel in RP English cast. The fact that キャ is palatalised raises the vowel and makes it ...


14

The real question is "Advantages/disadvantages for whom?". For students of Japanese, Romaji is really useful when they start out, because they don't have to learn anything to be able to read it (although without learning Kana, they'll probably end up reading it incorrectly, especially if they're native English speakers :(). Another advantage is that Romaji ...


14

In answer to this question, I'll give my personal understanding, although I can't fully substantiate it. The superiority of kunrei-siki Kunrei-siki is often felt to be a "better" system than Hepburn in representing Japanese. That is because kunrei-shiki mirrors kana usage more closely than Hepburn. This is noticeable in the さ row, the た row, the は row, and ...


11

As you guessed, it depends on the type of writing and the target audience, and also on the style. In text written for general public, such as newspaper articles, foreign personal names are usually written in katakana. In academic books and papers, it is more common to see names in the Latin script (at least in mathematics and computer science). As for ...


11

They are known as Arabic Numerals, or アラビア数字 in Japanese. As you may notice, 1, 2, 3, etc. were developed by Indian mathematicians and did not originate from ancient Rome. Up until the 14th century Roman numerals were used, but were eventually abandoned in favor of Arabic Numerals.


11

This is an example of Hepburn romanization, which attempts to represent Japanese according to how it is pronounced. With geminated っち, it's standard to use tch instead of a double c, so instead of "maccha" you would write "matcha" for 抹茶. Similarly, long vowels use a macron (bar) instead of doubling, so "Hatchōbori" instead of "Hatchoobori." 出発{しゅっぱつ} is ...


10

By transcribing everything into latin alphabet (heck, even to hiragana/katakana syllables), written Japanese will lose most of the legibility than if it were to be written in full kanji+kana. It may be hard to describe, but let me give you a nonsense english sentence: Wheel you go two the par tea two knight at ate? Eye think it's awed they are having it ...


9

This is a difference between historical kana use (歴史的仮名遣) and modern kana use (現代仮名遣い). The kana orthography has been changed over time to reflect newer pronunciations. In this case, the title is written using an older spelling. Take a look at this official cabinet announcement (from 1986) and scroll down to the bottom half. It contains a rather large ...


9

It is likely [同僚]{どう・りょう} which means "colleague"/"coworker".


8

I agree with Matt that there's no fixed standard about which romanization scheme to use. My guess is that it depends on the project, author, term and the author's swing of mood at the moment, just as in any other context of Japanese romanization. [Personal point-of-view] If I were to use a Japanese variable name, I'd use Hepburn-style romanization, because ...


8

You will find "chi" in the "t" row and "i" column, hence "ti". There are various ways to transcribe Japanese into Latin script. Whether you spell it chi or ti, it is the same Japanese sound: ち. For cha, chu, and cho, it is chi + ya, chi + yu, and chi + yo. You could also spell it tya, tyu, and tyo.


8

Because computers cannot read your mind. When you type "wa", the computer cannot decipher whether you mean わ or は, so it was decided that わ would be the only way. You could argue that you could develop a system to perform 変換 based on context, but I would imagine that any attempt would fail. Also, if you don't like this system, you can always use かな入力 (mainly ...


8

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


7

It depends. In most cases it is おう. But is some words, the "おお" form is retained, such as "大【おお】きい", "多【おお】い", "遠【とお】い", etc. For 扇, I'd believe if the dictionary doesn't have おおぎ, it should be incorrect. (btw, from the transcription of おうぎ in classic Japanese (あふぎ) which is shown in the dictionary, the transcription now can only be おうぎ.)


7

I think there are no consistent rules for transcribing foreign words to katakana and thus the task of reverting the process is even harder. The most obvious hurdle will be deciding whether ラリルレロ should be La Li Lu Le Lo or Ra Ri Ru Re Ro (or something completely different), e.g. レディー is either lady, or ready. Moreover, there are many source languages, like ...


6

へうげもの is old kana usage (see for example here for some tables of current/old spelling). According to the wikipedia article on this manga, the reading for へうげもの is ひょうげもの, so it is being romanised as it would be pronounced.


6

I hate to bring anime into this reply but all Japanese people I have met know the pronunciation "zetto", and all of them have heard of Dragon Ball Z. Which in Japanese is "Doragon Bo-ru Zetto". I work in a Junior High School in Japan and whenever students don't understand "zee" if I say "zetto" or even "zeddo" they understand immediately what letter I mean - ...


6

I've softened significantly from my beginner-level "all romaji should be purged from the earth" fanaticism. There are two related questions here, "Should I avoid a roomaji-based textbook like the plague?" and "Can I get away with learning Japanese without studying kanji?" The TLDR version is "No" and "Yes, but you obviously will be illiterate". "Should I ...


6

Are L and R picked simply based on which "sounds better" to whoever is doing the transliterating? Sometimes it's this, and other times it's about figuring out which is correct. It extends to more than just "L" and "R", by the way. For instance: ロック・リー (rokku rii) (from Naruto) : Rock Lee ジュリー (jurii) : Julie ... or jury ジェリー (jerii) : Jelly ... or, ...


6

It is called the history kana orthography, in Japanese [歴史的]{れきしてき}[仮名]{かな}[遣]{づか}ひ. Around the time this kana orthography was introduced, Japanese sounded different than today, words were pronounced differently. As the language changed, the old spelling was preserved. The technical details of the following are taken from "A History of the Japanese ...


6

This is not an answer, but I will post it in the hope that it may resolve part of your confusion. I am afraid that you seem to be mixing “shorter” in the sense that it uses less characters and “shorter” in the sense that it uses less area in typical typesetting (hence less pages in typical books, assuming that the size of a page is similar in books in ...


6

When talking about shi (and absence of si), to say "there is no si but shi in Japanese" is not really correct. The truth would rather be "there is no distinction between si and shi in Japanese". In other words, there is only one such "voiceless sibilant" phoneme in Japanese, which is usually written as /s/, and さしすせそ are phonemically parsed as /sa si su se ...


5

An alpabet has roughly log(60)~6bits informations and a Kanji has roughly log(3000)~12bits informations. Here we assumed that every character has equal frequency. More acculate estimates would be -Σ((probability of a character X)×log(probabily of a character X) (sum over every character X). If all the character have equal frequency, this sum becomes ...


5

In English, people often capitalize every word in a foreign title, and you can apply that rule without talking about Japanese specifically at all. Of course, different people use different styles! Here's what I'd do: Capitalize everything except function words (particles, conjunctions, etc.). If a function word is the first word, or if it's long (6+ ...


4

I don't think that there is an absolute industry standard ("programmers" can't even agree on the best way of indenting code...), but in my admittedly limited experience, Word-processor-style, influenced by Nihon-shiki, is most common. Thus, 東京 is "toukyou" and "情報" is "zyouhou", "普通" is "hutuu". Pure speculation: This might be because if you romanize things ...



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