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Why do we prefer た form here? It's because those animals are familiar and easy to concretely imagine. non-た form represents that something has not happened yet but is going to happen. On the other hand, た form represents that something has happened. In short, non-た form feels obscure while た form feels more vivid. For example, when you pull up a fish, you ...


The verbal auxiliary た represents past and completion and this た is used as completion. As your teacher says, I think 使った言い方 is more common. And た which means completion can be used for a future thing. For example, 来週の金曜日に、仕事が終わったら、お酒を飲みましょう (Let's drink after work next Friday).


All the sentences but the last one are correct. It should be BがAを踏んだところは足だ. (器官 sounds too anatomical.)


"Basically, is it permissible to insert any other modifiers between the relative clause and the noun it is modifying?" Yes, it is. In fact, it is commonly practiced as long as the modifiers are not excessively long and/or elaborate. If they were, it would often look/sound more reader- or listener-friendly to split the information into two separate ...


The above answers are very nuanced and detailed but if the question is how to modify a noun with a verb in Japanese the basic answer is fairly straight forward. The plain form of a verb in non-past, past, non-past negative, or past negative can be used to directly modify a noun. kuru hito = the person who comes, kita hito = the person who came, konai hito ...


「新聞をひろげ(る)」 simply means "open the newspaper" (to look at it); then 「記事が出(る)」 means for an article to "appear". This use of 出る is extremely common colloquially, so for example "to be on tv" is 「テレビに出る」. So the sentence simply means that "Hardly a day went by that I would open the newspaper and not find this sort of gossip story".


「とってもまずしくて明日食べるパンもありません。」 = 「とってもまずしくて、明日食べるパンもありません。」 「[明日食]{あしたた}べる」 is a relative clause that modifies 「パン」. In the Japanese word order, the relative clause is placed in front of the noun that you want to give additional information to. In English, needless to say, it is the other way around -- "the bread that I (can) eat tomorrow". ...

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