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14

Relative clauses in English In English, relative clauses are formed by removing something, leaving behind a gap. 1a) I kicked the ball 1b) I wrote with the pen 1c) I entered the building 1d) I played in the garden In each example, we'll pull out the bolded noun phrase, leaving behind a gap: 2a) the ball [ which/that/∅ I kicked ____ ] ...


12

In your example, 日本人の知らない is a relative clause, equivalent in meaning to 日本人が知らない. This clause as a whole modifies 日本語, so it means the Japanese that Japanese people don't know. In relative clauses, the subject particle が can be replaced with の: ジョンが買った本 ジョンの買った本 The book John bought This is true in double-subject constructions as ...


11

I think that the あっての in your example is different from the one in the dictionary. 悪気があっての回答 means “a reply given out of malice.” 悪気がある回答 means “a malicious reply.” The former describes the state of the person who made the reply, whereas the latter describes an attribute of the reply itself. So I would translate the two examples as I did not reply ...


9

This is called a relative clause, and they are pretty interesting in Japanese. Rules from English do not transfer very well at all. た-form in relative clauses There are two ways to interpret the た-form of a verb in a relative clause: as past as non-past, if: the verb has a 'result state', there is no overt actor, explaining the state change does not ...


8

It's just standard GA-NO conversion. [日本人が知らない]日本語 'Japanese that [Japanese don't know]'


7

〜ている can indicate a completed-action state, not just in-progress actions. 結婚している → is (currently) married 開いているお店 → a store that is open 太っている → is fat To disambiguate these states from in-progress, you can use 〜つつある for "happening right now". I've mentioned this in another thread, but don't remember which one at the momemt (will update ...


7

It happens in sentences where the verb acts kind of like an adjective. I mean, not exactly but here is an example: In English you might say "The person I met yesterday" which turns into "昨日会った人" (きのうあったひと) in Japanese or "The banana I ate yesterday" => "昨日食べたバナナ"。I think this is called noun phrase in English. The important thing about this is that it's ...


7

Actually I don't find it surprising. It may be just my own experience but, English: [a] "When I was in (primary/secondary/middle/high/etc.) school......" (More common) as opposed to, [b] "When I was a (primary/secondary/middle/high/etc.) school student......" (Not as common) Chinese: [a] "(我在)[小/中/大]学時......" (More common) as ...


6

This happens a lot in patent translations, so you might get some hints by searching for these terms: 特許 請求項 翻訳 This site has this example: A dynamic random access memory including at least two banks, each of said banks including memory cells arranged in rows and columns, said memory cells storing data provided by at least one bit line and by at ...


6

A) 食べる羊 can be "the sheep that eats" 羊 is the subject for 食べる. 「羊が食べる」>>「食べる羊」 "the sheep to eat" "the sheep you/someone eat(s)" 羊 is the object for 食べる. 「羊を食べる」>>「食べる羊」 食べられる羊 When the 羊 is the subject for 食べられる. 「羊が食べられる」>>「食べられる羊」 The (ら)れる can be: a passive auxiliary verb. "the sheep that is eaten" e.g. 狼に食べられる羊 a potential auxiliary verb. ...


5

Your original text seems to be an instance of a very English way of sentence-building, which adds comments as appositive afterthoughts. This sort of idea is often hard to transplant into Japanese, because the language doesn't have any postmodifing (i.e. adding adjectives after) mechanism. It is often separated or linked by conjunctions, like multiple ...


5

How about using the English copula in this case too? "And there was Hanako, lost for words to comfort her sister, Kayo" Or in the case of the second, "the" could work too: "The ever evolving convenience store: with 40 years since its inception, blah blah blah" As for meaning, it doesn't mean anything special per se, but to me it feels "defining" for lack ...


5

ピンチ A pinch/crisis, noun. ピンチの時 At the time of a pinch crisi. If ピンチ was a な-adjective, then you would say な時 instead, but since it's a noun, you must say の時. アナタがピンチの時 Subject introduced, At the time of your pinch/crisis, or to make a smoother (slightly off) translation; When you are in a crisis. The whole clause before the は is still a ...


5

Yes, 「姉がくれた本が好きです。」 is correct. The first が, because it is in a clause that modifies 本, can be also be swapped with の. So 「姉のくれた本が好きです。」 is also correct, and has the same meaning. This is not the only reason that が can appear multiple times in a sentence. Predicates like 好きだ are called "double-ga" or "affective" predicates1. This class also includes ...


4

In the verb+noun construction (in fact, this is a sentence+noun construcion), there is no strict rule that the noun is meant to be a subject for the verb's action. This is the most frequent case but no rule at all. The noun can also be a direct object, an indirect object, or something just associated with the action. Thus, 食べる人 can mean "the person that ...


4

The most straightforward way to analyze this is to regard の as a 連体形{れんたいけい} form of copula, which only comes after nouns (and の-adjectives). あなたがピンチだ you're in a pinch あなたがピンチの時 when you're in a pinch 明日は雨だ tomorrow it will rain 明日が雨の場合 if it rains tomorrow


4

忌み嫌われる modifies (世界の)敵. The first half of the sentence says 現の神 and 古の神 conflict with each other in 'this world', and this "世界の敵" is detested by both 現の神 and 古の神. Interpreting this part as "detested world" is grammatically possible, but it doesn't match the context.


4

「[俺]{おれ}が[話]{はな}していた[男]{おとこ}」 indeed can mean the two different things you listed. (Note that this is an equivalent of the English relative clause. It is NOT a "sentence" as you said that it was.) As always, the context will tell you which one of the two it means. With this particular phrase, however, it might take more than just a sentence or two as ...


3

中心 means center and を中心に(して) means "as center". Like you suggested, 東南アジアを中心に世界各地で活躍する active all around the world, with South-East Asia as center of activity Also, 多く should not refer to 華僑, 多く stands for many, in the sense of many people. My rough translation would be ...


3

Yes, ~あっての indicates an almost 100% dependency on the ~ part. My book defines it as 「~があるという条件があってはじめて~が可能」ということを強調する. Here are the accompanying examples that might make more sense: 愛あっての結婚生活だ。愛がなければ、一緒に暮らす意味がない。 → A marriage (lifestyle) depends completely on love. If there's no love, there's no point in living together. ...


3

Depends. Some principles may carry over but some may not. When you take a principle from one language and apply it to another where it does not work the same way (or does no work at all) you are basically making a pragmatic error. Yep, there is a whole field in linguistics devoted to the subject. Since English is not my mother tongue, I already did or will ...


2

I don't see anything wrong with solution 1, but not because it makes it easier for the speaker. Breaking up complex ideas also makes things easier for the listener to digest, piece by piece. Of course it's ridiculous to take it to the level of "Here's this. Here's that. That relates to this in a certain way. . . ad nauseam". But you can and probably should ...


2

When there is no copula and nothing seems to be omitted, as in your second example, I interpret the sentence as simply a fragment, used to "set the scene", and would translate it as such. It is very reminiscent of how fragments are used in descriptive passages in English: Pale druggists in remote towns of the Epworth League and flannel nightgown belts, ...


1

FWIW, I just had a look in Shogakukan's Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary entry for それぞれ. In all the sample uses where それぞれ came right after the initial は clause, the それぞれ was referring to the topic. This agrees with my own subjective experience hearing this term in use. Excerpted examples (emphasis original): 少年たちはそれぞれ犬を飼っている  Each boy [Each of ...


1

1. natural / acceptable 僕が 君を 好きだと思うのは そういうところだ 僕が 君を 好きに思うのは そういうところだ 僕が 君を 好きなのは そういうところだ 僕は 君の ~が 好きだ 僕は 君の ~なところが 好きだ 僕は 君の ~を 好きだと思う 僕が 好きなところは 君の ~だ not possible 僕が 君の 好きな/好きだと思う のは、そういうところだ (君「の」is not possible) 2. for 「思う」 ○「感じる」 △「考える」 natural この文の中で あなたが おかしいと 思うところは? あなたが この文の中で おかしいと 思うところは? not in dayly use ...


1

Yes, these が particles mark the subjects for the following verbs, so you can use が to create relative clauses. (There are other が particles in Japanese, such as the phrase-ending version). Note that は(topic-wa) does not work this way, but most of the other particles that mark a noun do, such as を,で and に.


1

For one thing, it's not a complete sentence. It looks a lot like a song title. 折れた淡い翼だ would be a properly formed sentence, if a somewhat odd one in isolation. One of the things you can do with plain-form sentences in Japanese is use them to modify nouns. In Japanese, there's a general rule that when X modifies noun Y, the ordering is "X, then Y". A ...


1

For starters, could 「・・・食べる食事」 also mean: "a meal that (I/you/we) ("can"/will) eat"? And couldn't 「・・・食べられる食事」 mean something more like: "a meal that (I/you/we) (can/are able to) eat"? Context is important, though, as well; I'd be scared if the food was the one who was doing the eating... ;)



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