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15

Relative clauses in English In English, relative clauses are formed by removing something, leaving behind a gap. 1a) I kicked the ball 1b) I wrote with the pen 1c) I entered the building 1d) I played in the garden In each example, we'll pull out the bolded noun phrase, leaving behind a gap: 2a) the ball [ which/that/∅ I kicked ____ ] ...


13

In your example, 日本人の知らない is a relative clause, equivalent in meaning to 日本人が知らない. This clause as a whole modifies 日本語, so it means the Japanese that Japanese people don't know. In relative clauses, the subject particle が can be replaced with の: ジョンが買った本 ジョンの買った本 The book John bought This is true in double-subject constructions as ...


11

I think that the あっての in your example is different from the one in the dictionary. 悪気があっての回答 means “a reply given out of malice.” 悪気がある回答 means “a malicious reply.” The former describes the state of the person who made the reply, whereas the latter describes an attribute of the reply itself. So I would translate the two examples as I did not reply ...


10

This is called a relative clause, and they are pretty interesting in Japanese. Rules from English do not transfer very well at all. た-form in relative clauses There are two ways to interpret the た-form of a verb in a relative clause: as past as non-past, if: the verb has a 'result state', there is no overt actor, explaining the state change does not ...


8

It's just standard GA-NO conversion. [日本人が知らない]日本語 'Japanese that [Japanese don't know]'


7

It happens in sentences where the verb acts kind of like an adjective. I mean, not exactly but here is an example: In English you might say "The person I met yesterday" which turns into "昨日会った人" (きのうあったひと) in Japanese or "The banana I ate yesterday" => "昨日食べたバナナ"。I think this is called noun phrase in English. The important thing about this is that it's ...


7

〜ている can indicate a completed-action state, not just in-progress actions. 結婚している → is (currently) married 開いているお店 → a store that is open 太っている → is fat To disambiguate these states from in-progress, you can use 〜つつある for "happening right now". I've mentioned this in another thread, but don't remember which one at the momemt (will update ...


7

Actually I don't find it surprising. It may be just my own experience but, English: [a] "When I was in (primary/secondary/middle/high/etc.) school......" (More common) as opposed to, [b] "When I was a (primary/secondary/middle/high/etc.) school student......" (Not as common) Chinese: [a] "(我在)[小/中/大]学時......" (More common) as ...


6

This happens a lot in patent translations, so you might get some hints by searching for these terms: 特許 請求項 翻訳 This site has this example: A dynamic random access memory including at least two banks, each of said banks including memory cells arranged in rows and columns, said memory cells storing data provided by at least one bit line and by at ...


5

ピンチ A pinch/crisis, noun. ピンチの時 At the time of a pinch crisi. If ピンチ was a な-adjective, then you would say な時 instead, but since it's a noun, you must say の時. アナタがピンチの時 Subject introduced, At the time of your pinch/crisis, or to make a smoother (slightly off) translation; When you are in a crisis. The whole clause before the は is still a ...


5

「[俺]{おれ}が[話]{はな}していた[男]{おとこ}」 indeed can mean the two different things you listed. (Note that this is an equivalent of the English relative clause. It is NOT a "sentence" as you said that it was.) As always, the context will tell you which one of the two it means. With this particular phrase, however, it might take more than just a sentence or two as ...


5

Your original text seems to be an instance of a very English way of sentence-building, which adds comments as appositive afterthoughts. This sort of idea is often hard to transplant into Japanese, because the language doesn't have any postmodifing (i.e. adding adjectives after) mechanism. It is often separated or linked by conjunctions, like multiple ...


5

How about using the English copula in this case too? "And there was Hanako, lost for words to comfort her sister, Kayo" Or in the case of the second, "the" could work too: "The ever evolving convenience store: with 40 years since its inception, blah blah blah" As for meaning, it doesn't mean anything special per se, but to me it feels "defining" for lack ...


5

Yes, 「姉がくれた本が好きです。」 is correct. The first が, because it is in a clause that modifies 本, can be also be swapped with の. So 「姉のくれた本が好きです。」 is also correct, and has the same meaning. This is not the only reason that が can appear multiple times in a sentence. Predicates like 好きだ are called "double-ga" or "affective" predicates1. This class also includes ...


5

The most straightforward way to analyze this is to regard の as a 連体形{れんたいけい} form of copula, which only comes after nouns (and の-adjectives). あなたがピンチだ you're in a pinch あなたがピンチの時 when you're in a pinch 明日は雨だ tomorrow it will rain 明日が雨の場合 if it rains tomorrow


4

In the verb+noun construction (in fact, this is a sentence+noun construcion), there is no strict rule that the noun is meant to be a subject for the verb's action. This is the most frequent case but no rule at all. The noun can also be a direct object, an indirect object, or something just associated with the action. Thus, 食べる人 can mean "the person that ...


4

忌み嫌われる modifies (世界の)敵. The first half of the sentence says 現の神 and 古の神 conflict with each other in 'this world', and this "世界の敵" is detested by both 現の神 and 古の神. Interpreting this part as "detested world" is grammatically possible, but it doesn't match the context.


4

I must say that your understanding of the sentence is 100% accurate. Rules regarding the use of commas around relative clauses (or anywhere for that matter) in Japanese are not nearly as strict as in English. Where to use commas is pretty much left at the discretion of each writer. The two commas used in 「すらりと揺ぐ茎の頂に、心持首を傾けていた細長い一輪の蕾が、ふっくらと弁を開いた。」 seem ...


3

中心 means center and を中心に(して) means "as center". Like you suggested, 東南アジアを中心に世界各地で活躍する active all around the world, with South-East Asia as center of activity Also, 多く should not refer to 華僑, 多く stands for many, in the sense of many people. My rough translation would be ...


3

Yes, ~あっての indicates an almost 100% dependency on the ~ part. My book defines it as 「~があるという条件があってはじめて~が可能」ということを強調する. Here are the accompanying examples that might make more sense: 愛あっての結婚生活だ。愛がなければ、一緒に暮らす意味がない。 → A marriage (lifestyle) depends completely on love. If there's no love, there's no point in living together. ...


3

Depends. Some principles may carry over but some may not. When you take a principle from one language and apply it to another where it does not work the same way (or does not work at all) you are basically making a pragmatic error. Yep, there is a whole field in linguistics devoted to the subject. Since English is not my mother tongue, I already did make ...


3

最後に立っていたものが勝者だ The last person who was (still) standing is the winner 最後に立っているものが勝者だ The last person who is (still) standing is the winner 最後に立ったものが勝者だ The person who stands up last is the winner The third one is uncommon because there aren't many competition where you try to not stand up.


3

Usually, A-て B composition describes "do B with effect or result of A", that is, either A continues as long as B does (like your second one 輝いて見えた), or A completes when/before B starts. But I know, oddly enough, A sometimes accepts action of utterance that apparently too late for B's beginning. Some examples through quick Googling: ...


3

You should read the sentence in this way: NP{ NP(その国) POSS(の) NP[ NP(議会) AND(や) NP(中心になる役所) ] } SUBJ(の) V(ある) NP(都市) , where NP{} is the subject of the sentence modifying 'city'. It's not a full parse, but I hope you understand the point here. OP seems to have a problem reading NP[], which is a ...


2

I don't see anything wrong with solution 1, but not because it makes it easier for the speaker. Breaking up complex ideas also makes things easier for the listener to digest, piece by piece. Of course it's ridiculous to take it to the level of "Here's this. Here's that. That relates to this in a certain way. . . ad nauseam". But you can and probably should ...


2

When there is no copula and nothing seems to be omitted, as in your second example, I interpret the sentence as simply a fragment, used to "set the scene", and would translate it as such. It is very reminiscent of how fragments are used in descriptive passages in English: Pale druggists in remote towns of the Epworth League and flannel nightgown belts, ...


2

Well, as with any sentences that don't have a large number of adjuncts or context limiting their meaning, there are many interpretations. 最後に立っていたものが勝者だ Matrix time: present Subordinate time: past ("Who is the winner?") "The last person who was standing is the winner." That is, the person who was (before time of speech) standing up last ...


2

Generally speaking, connecting two verbs like this using te-form indicates the two actions happens simultaneously, or the second one happens soon after the first one. 酔って運転する drive under the influence of alcohol, drink and drive 会って話す meet and talk 食べて寝る eat and sleep, go to bed just after eating 遊んで暮らす spend days in idleness In your ...



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