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Both readings are kun-readings of kanji 夜 and are used in native Japanese words. I think the main difference is that: 夜{よる} is rather used as a standalone word meaning evening or night. 夜{よ} is used in compound words, e.g. 夜{よ}中{なか} (midnight), 闇{やみ}夜{よ} (dark night), 夜{よ}空{ぞら} (night sky).


I'm just basically going to summarize the references from user3169. Until now I've never known that フケ can be written as 雲脂/頭垢. I don't think either form is common in ordinary use of the language, as it is normally written in Katakana. But at the same time they are clearly recognized well enough to be on Wikipedia. According to 語源由来辞典, 雲脂 is 当て字 that most ...


I'll quote part of Tokyo Nagoya's comment: I say it まいつき 100% of the time and hear others say it the same 99.99% of the time. So it seems that まいつき is the common reading. Other speakers corroborate this, with one saying that まいげつ is rare and another saying that まいげつ isn't even an acceptable reading—although I'm not willing to make that claim ...


At its core, the difference is that う is the 音読み, and thus is used in 漢語【かんご】 (words of Chinese origin). あめ and its related forms are 訓読み, and are used in combination with other readings of Japanese origin. Now to get into some specifics... Using あま あま is related to あめ, and is used when あめ appears at the front of a compound and a vowel shift is required. ...

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