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4

Both readings are kun-readings of kanji 夜 and are used in native Japanese words. I think the main difference is that: 夜{よる} is rather used as a standalone word meaning evening or night. 夜{よ} is used in compound words, e.g. 夜{よ}中{なか} (midnight), 闇{やみ}夜{よ} (dark night), 夜{よ}空{ぞら} (night sky).


3

I'm just basically going to summarize the references from user3169. Until now I've never known that フケ can be written as 雲脂/頭垢. I don't think either form is common in ordinary use of the language, as it is normally written in Katakana. But at the same time they are clearly recognized well enough to be on Wikipedia. According to 語源由来辞典, 雲脂 is 当て字 that most ...


2

I'll quote part of Tokyo Nagoya's comment: I say it まいつき 100% of the time and hear others say it the same 99.99% of the time. So it seems that まいつき is the common reading. Other speakers corroborate this, with one saying that まいげつ is rare and another saying that まいげつ isn't even an acceptable reading—although I'm not willing to make that claim ...


2

At its core, the difference is that う is the 音読み, and thus is used in 漢語【かんご】 (words of Chinese origin). あめ and its related forms are 訓読み, and are used in combination with other readings of Japanese origin. Now to get into some specifics... Using あま あま is related to あめ, and is used when あめ appears at the front of a compound and a vowel shift is required. ...


12

Numbers written with Arabic numerals are usually positional. The place value of each digit depends on its position in the sequence: 1b2 + 2b1 + 3b0 = 123 Numbers written with kanji are typically non-positional. Although they usually appear in the same order, rather than use position alone to indicate their place value, they're generally combined with ...


5

When you only see 一二三, the context always matters. (As you may know, Japanese language generally rely very much on the context to decide the meaning.) You use 百二十三 kind of way only when you want to specify that numbers are like "one hundred twenty-three". This kind of expressions however tends to be redundant (二億三千五百九十五万三千百四十五=235,953,445). So you ...


8

Japanese-speaker here. "One hundred twenty-three" = 百二十三 "One, two, three" = 一二三 or 一、二、三


2

Without context, I would say it's one hundred twenty three. "One, two, three" would probably look like 一・二・三, or some other common delimiter.


7

The readings "kin" and "kon" are on-yomi pronunciations for 金. The "kon" reading is the older one (go-on 呉音) and "kin" is newer (kan-on 漢音). They ultimately stem from Middle Chinese /ki̯əm/; notice that 今 has the same on-yomi pronunciations. As a general pattern, go-on pronunciations are somewhat less common (relative to kan-on) in everyday words and more ...


2

The character 金 can refer the idea of gold, metal in general, or money. Most commonly, it is read as かね (kane, kun-yomi) and キン (kin, on-yomi) when occuring in compounds. There is also the コン (kon, on-yomi) reading which you mention. As Zhen Lin has pointed out, this is an older reading that is due to interaction between Japanese and Middle Chinese. ...


3

Classical Japanese is not necessarily my forte but here is what I do know. I would say that the two readings are just as old as each other because they both appear in Classical Japanese. As far as I know, the reading depends on the positioning of 「歳」 in a word. Needless to say, I am only talking about [大和言葉]{やまとことば}, not loanwords from Chinese. When 「歳」 ...


1

I know I've seen とし in classical Japanese texts before; don't know about とせ offhand. That said, the few examples I can find in the dictionary using とせ all pair it with native Japanese numbers (一年【ひととせ】, 百歳【ももとせ】, 千歳【ちとせ】, etc.), which suggests that its history is close to as long. As such, my hypothesis would be that it's something of a counter variant for ...



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