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20

The はた there is part of the same series of Japanese readings for numbers as ひとつ、ふたつ、みっつ and so on. Where the ち comes from - that I do not know. It also makes an appearance in some other common words, such as 二十日(はつか), although in a slightly mangled form. There are readings for the tens after that as well - for instance 三十(みそ) makes an appearance in words ...


18

It depends on the meaning. 中 used to mean "during / in the process of" must be pronounced ちゅう (as in ジョン's post) インストール中【ちゅう】 now installing 読込【よみこみ】中【ちゅう】 now loading 建築【けんちく】中【ちゅう】 under construction But in other uses, such as "all throughout" or "out of (all the)", it is commonly read じゅう (although it seems that ちゅう is also an option?): ...


16

Study comprehensive grammars with lots of examples. Not textbooks. These are the best (there are three). use a mnemonic kanji learning system. This one is awesome. Learning meaning and reading separate is fine because it is more efficient. Utilize similarities between kanji as much as possible, as relating knowledge to new ideas will make learning much ...


15

According to an answer to a similar question on Goo's oshiete site: 「さびしい」 is generally used in two ways (roughly equivalent to how the english "lonely" is used): an emotional state of emptiness, isolation, or a feeling of lacking Examples: 「さびしい正月を迎える」「ふところがさびしい」 quiet and empty of people or sounds Example: 「さびしい山道」 These two meanings are ...


15

It is native Japanese (和語). It is a compound of kao (顔) and hayui (映ゆい). A simplified view of the phonological development is kapopayu-ki > kaɸoɸayu-ki > kawowayu-ki > kaowayu-ki > kawayu-ki > kawayu-i > kawai-i. Other than the normal p > ɸ > w > Ø, the two major changes are 1) merge of owa > wa and yu > i. 可愛 is ateji (当て字).


14

First, concurring with Axioplase: だく is for tangible things, いだく is for abstract things. (Daijisen has a usage note under 抱える that deals with this distinction.) With regards to your second question, yes, だく can have the connotation of "sleep with" (second sense in the Daijisen definition for 抱く). It's a somewhat "nicer" way to say "sleep with" in the sense ...


14

Numbers written with Arabic numerals are usually positional. The place value of each digit depends on its position in the sequence: 1b2 + 2b1 + 3b0 = 123 Numbers written with kanji are typically non-positional. Although they usually appear in the same order, rather than use position alone to indicate their place value, they're generally combined with ...


13

Well, first, I think that うだく is archaic, as I read it: 〔上代語「むだく」の転で、「だく」の古形。平安鎌倉時代の漢文訓読にだけ見える語〕 Then, だく seems to be use for concrete situations, when you really use your hands. いだく seems to be a more literary reading, or used in abstract situations, like 「理想を―・く」「不安を―・く」. This is exactly your sentence, isn't it? Sources: on-line dictionaries ...


13

+: 足{た}す -: 引{ひ}く /: 割{わ}る *: 掛{か}ける And you just say the terms normally in order. So your example of 3 * 4 = 12 would be 3かける4は12. Note that = becomes は, similar to how we use "is" in English. As @blutorange mentioned, you can use イコール to mean "equals," however in most situations you'll be good using は. You learn these things quickly when listening to ...


13

I looked up in my etymology dictionary (小学館's 日本語源大辞典) :) The answer goes like this: つくも was originally a name of a kind of plant (modern standard name: フトイ; English name is softstem bulrush or great bulrush according to Wikipedia). A compound word つくもがみ < つくも + かみ "disheveled white hair (especially of old women)" was coined, because of its ...


12

よん is a 訓読み(kunyomi) reading of 4 and し is a 音読み(onyomi). なな is a kunyomi reading of 7 and しち is a onyomi. To make a long story short kunyomi is a native Japanese pronunciation and onyomi are pronunciation that were derived from classical Chinese. In the case of numbers shi and shichi (onyomi) is used when you are counting things. For example, ichi ni ...


12

Although 並(nami), 大(dai) will works on most of the place, but others would depend on each restaurants. For Small - 小 (shou), ミニ (mini), 半分(hanbun), 少なめ (sukuname), S (エス) ... For Normal - 並 (nami), 普通(ふつう), 中(chuu), M (エム)... For Big - 大 (dai), 大盛り (oomori), 多め (oome), L (エル)... For Special Big - 1.5盛 (ittengo mori) (sukiya invented it) For extra Big - ...


11

It is read as めい. “ユーザ名” is read as ユーザめい, “Skype 名” is スカイプめい. I do not know the reason for that, but if I make a guess, this may be because gairaigo in a compound word is treated in a similar way to Sino-Japanese words.


11

“2つ” is just another notation for “二つ,” and is read as ふたつ, although some people consider the notation “2つ” as incorrect.


11

Japanese speakers also use the strategy you describe, guessing at the 音読み from the right side of the 漢字 (or otherwise). However, the Japanese have a larger "database" from which to sample when making their guess... & 3. I don't think these phonetic relationships are as obvious to native speakers as to foreign adult learners. The relationships are not ...


11

[EDIT] I only 'heard' that にっぽん was overused during WWII to encourage patriotic feelings. After Jesse Good comment I tried findind document backing up this but as I didn't found anything it's probably better not to remember this point ! Also I remembered that Japan was officialy read as にっぽん according to the Government, I haven't had time to check it yet ...


10

They both mean "eat", as you no doubt already know. 食{た}べるhowever, is "eat" in the sense of "sit down and have a meal". Not strictly that, but that's more the image. It also means eat as in "sustenance", the food you eat regularly to stay alive. 食{く}う is eat in the sense of "consume", as in one animal eating another. 食う can be used for people, of course, ...


10

It's pronounced やちん, and written 家賃 if using all kanji. It means "rent", as in "the rent for this place is expensive".


10

Everyone has answered this really well, but I'd like to add some points that I wish someone had told me when I began learning. The On-yomi is taken from the original Chinese reading of the kanji, and the Kun-yomi is the Japanese reading that has "adopted" the kanji, so to speak. As a general rule, if the kanji is by itself, (as in, it is not attached to ...


10

Generally speaking these are read using the 音読み, and most frequently occur in pairs (e.g. 日米【にちべい】, 日独【にちどく】). I actually did some trolling through EDICT and a couple other sources to create a master list of these, and came up with the following list: 豪 ごう Australia 爾 る Argentina 墺 おう Austria 白 ぱく Belgium 戊 ぼ Bolivia 伯 ぱく Brazil 勃 ぼつ ...


9

I don't think there is a "normally" appropriate way. My personal philosophy is never assume you can read someone's name. I suppose last names are easier to make a correct (educated) guess. It seems like they more often use kun-yomi. But they could be on-yomi, or other, lesser-used kun-yomi. I have two friends whose last names are the kanji 金城. However, ...


9

It is pronounced おおやけ (although I've never seen it with け as okurigana -- usually just 公). It means "publicly/openly", similar to 公的 【こうてき】. That sentence would translate as "Not wanting it to be made publicly known to everyone, He/I decided to break up with her in private."


9

It is たいおうずみ. More generally, the suffix 済 or 済み is read as ずみ. This is an example of rendaku.


9

Do native Japanese know both readings for every Kanji? As much has every Roman knew latin. Some kanji have a large number of on-readings (consider 行: AN, GYOU, KOU, which are comonly known), plus a large number of kun-readings (行: i(ku), okona(u), yu(ku), i(keru), kudari) plus several "Nanori" - readings that are used in first names (行: nami, ...


9

一組 is pronounced in two ways in Japanese for two different meanings. ひとくみ: a pair of ~~, a set of ~~ Examples: ひとくみのカップル、ひとくみのディナーウェアー いちくみ: Group #1 (among multiple groups) Example: Name of class in school (二年一組、六年一組, etc.) 一組 is never officially read いちぐみ, いっくみ or いっぐみ in real life. However, you will once in a while hear people say いっくみ to mean Group ...


8

First of all, you are right about ー: it always extends the vowel that came before it. (And the official name for it that I know is 長音符, ちょうおんぷ, "long sound mark", like cypher said.) What struck me though is that in this case, they are using katakana for a word for which there is kanji: 携帯けいたい, and in that kanji, the first character is read けい. Not けえ. ...


8

There is no general rule. It depends on the compound in which the kanji appears. Sometimes even compounds have two readings. Japanese people themselves (literate ones, that is) sometimes don't know how to read a personal name or place name. You cannot pick just any onyomi. For instance 上 in 上手 (jouzu) must be じょう, and in 上海 (Shanhai: the Chinese city ...


8

Section 10 - "二・小・原" is "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "motrocycle/small spacial veicle/moped". Section 11 - "他" is anything except "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "大型・中型・普通・大型特殊・けん引". Section 12 - "二種" is "Class 2". It's "commercial passenger-carrying vehicle". Section 13 first row 大型 - Large vehicle (e.g. dump truck) 中型 - Medium vehicle (e.g. truck) 普通 - ...



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