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3

の sounds a little feminine but you can use it if you're male - so long as のか could also be used (兄弟いるの? you can say but not どう言う事ですの?) It also has somewhat of an implication of asking for an explanation sometimes (何やってるの? - What are you doing [and why]?) Asking without a particle is probably most common informally - 手伝う? It has no real hidden implications, ...


1

Even though Eric says it is not rude to use ください is japanese, based on your question, you are looking for a softer way to ask/request things. ・ください is like a formal and cold please but can be a bit straight sometimes. You can use it when you are the customer or the supervisor. Otherwise, to avoid this straightness, the sentence is often turned the other way ...


3

Even without any context to go with, only [b. 行くことにしようよ] is correct as a phrase. We would never say [a. 行こうとしようよ] or [c. 行くようになろうよ] in any situation. The problem with [a. 行こうとしようよ] is that it is double-volitional (行こう & しよう) and it is ungrammatical. It is grammatical to say 「行くとしよう」 or 「行こうとする」 in single-volitional, but not 「行こうとしよう」 in double. ...


3

Those are common colloquial contractions. 「じゃ」=「では」 ← An extremely common contraction. 「てけない」=「ていけない」 ← The 「い」 in subsidiary verbs such as 「いく」 and 「いる」 is often omitted in informal speech. Your translation is good. Extra: 「[生]{い}きていく」 means "to go on living". 「生きていけない」 is the negative potential form of 「生きていく」. The affirmative potential form is ...


4

「これは[日本語]{にほんご}で[言]{い}い[方]{かた}ですか。」 Unfortunately, this makes little sense. To ask an information question (as opposed to a yes-no question) like "How do you say this in Japanese?", you need to use a question word just like you used "how" in English. Question words in Japanese are: なに、なん、いつ、どこ、だれ、どう、どんな, etc. The most natural way to say it by the ...



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