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16

お仕事は? Oshigoto wa? is basically short for お仕事は何ですか? Oshigoto wa nan desu ka? あなたは仕事ですか? Anata wa shigoto desu ka? means "Are you work?" and is nonsensical†. は wa (not わ BTW) is the topic marker.* Just asking 〜は basically means "About ~..." and only hints at the actual question. Leaving things unspoken is a very typical thing in Japanese. "About (your) ...


16

I think that in some cases, ending a question in の is fine for male speakers. For example, I hear え~、そうなの? quite often from male speakers. I think, in general, we have that (all male speech) rhetorical questions are allowed to end in の, e.g. even if it is clear what the other person is doing, you may ask 何をしてるの? or 何してんの? What (the heck) are ...


15

An authoritative classic, the Kāngxī dictionary, lists over 47,000 characters. The Hanyu Da Zidian, a more modern reference, has over 54,000 characters; the Dai Kan-Wa Jiten, the Japanese equivalent, has over 50,000. Even more recently, the Zhōnghuá Zìhǎi has over 85,000 characters, but apparently many of those are variants. Of course, such counting is ...


15

Yes, it can be used in a question, as long as the sentence also contains a question word: だれ, なに, どこ, etc. 誰だ? = Who's there? 何やってんだよ = What (the hell) are you doing? - (Note that よ can be added at the end) Both of your examples fit this pattern: どうして and どこ are the question words. Without a question word, you are much less likely to see this pattern, ...


14

どうする is more general than 何をする. The latter is more related to a specific event, whereas the former asks for a general course of action. I would thus say that you could translate the sentence as 母親の気持ちに対して、住友君はどうしましたか? How did Sumitomo-kun react to his mother's feelings? rather than What specifically did Sumitomo-kun do with regards to his ...


13

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


11

なの relates to the ~のだ construction, and as such provides explanatory, secondary, or supporting information (which could be a reason, a cause, or other fact the speaker feels would aid in the listener's understanding). Note that the な is only used if the preceding word is a noun or な-adjective. Following a verb or い-adjective, only の is used: ...


9

A good structure you might want to look into is the ~ましょう verb ending. It means "let's __" You attach ましょう to the verb stem, so for "let's speak" it would be はなしましょう. To make it "shall we __?" you add "か" to the end. So for "shall we speak?" it would be はなしましょうか?


8

This is a good example of where direct or literal translation does not work well between Japanese and another language. We often use 「どう」 where English-speakers would use nothing but "what". 「どうしよう。」 or 「どうしたらいいの。」 vs. "What should I do?" 「どうしましたか。」 vs. "What happened?" If you used 「なに」 instead of 「どう」 in the phrases above, you would sound more ...


8

You want to ask your "pen friend" whether she wants to talk with you in Japanese or English, Don't you? In this situation, I say "日本語で はなしますか、それとも英語で はなしますか?". This sentence means "Which would you like to speak in? Japanese or English?"


7

As opposed to 「か」, which is open-ended and can have any sort of answer, 「かい」 is expected to have an answer in the affirmative or negative only, that is, yes or no, with subsequent explanation optional. Example:  誰か来たのか  誰か来たのかい  誰が来たのか × 誰が来たのかい


7

Well, I'm not native, so I don't know if this disqualifies me from answering... ... But in the context of your question, I'd say この後(で)どこ{へ/に}行く? Your #1 could work, but using just あと instead of このあと gives a sense of "later" later. Adding the この solidifies the meaning of "after this", where "this" means being at school. You wouldn't use まで unless John ...


7

There is なのです (often contracted to なんです), which fits the bill. Just like you suspect, it is declarative/emphatic. This なんです is unrelated to 何{なん}です, but rather a combination of な (the inflection of the copula だ, if you like), the nominalizer の plus the "politifier" です. It also exists in non-polite form: なのだ・なんだ. It really appears everywhere, e.g. as a ...


7

It's basically a shortening of それで何?, meaning something along the lines of 'and so...?' or 'then what?' It asks for either a continuation of the thought (especially in a story or something else temporally organised) or a conclusion (as in 'what you just said is setting something up, what is it?').


7

To take the "casually" part literally, you could say: 「(お)[名前]{なまえ}は?」 「(お)名前、[聞]{き}いてもいい(かな)?」 or 「(お)名前聞いてもいいっすか?」 「なにさんって[呼]{よ}んだらいいのかな?」 or 「なにさんって呼んだらいいっすか?」 「(お)名前[教]{おし}えてもらえる(かな)?」 , etc.


6

It's fine, although, as in English, if you stack up too many you end up with something faintly ridiculous, of course. (This can even be emphasised for humorous purposes: try Googling "地球が何回回った時"). Still, I would say that Japanese is more tolerant of multiple WH- words in a sentence than English is, maybe because in Japanese the WH- words can be left in ...


6

かい is used to soften the rudeness of か in informal speech. Sentences like "見たか?" or "好きか?" are harsh to the ear, and using かい instead of か is thus nicer to the listener.


6

If you drop か, your rising intonation will indicate a question. 今何時ですか。- canonical polite form 今何時です- slightly less formal, feminine form. 今何時- casual 今何時だ- demanding and rude. Doesn't require rising intonation. Just watch something with gangsters and you'll hear it :)


6

50,000 is usually the number given for the number of Kanji characters since the dawn of time. 2,000 is roughly the number than comprises compulsory education. 5,000 is often assigned to particularly well-read persons (e.g. university professors). I remember reading a newspaper article about one of these "living national treasures", who was supposedly able ...


6

The quick answer: rather than interpreting this as だけ "only", this is 丈 ("length"). Normally read as take, voices during compounding. Before someone calls me out on it, the more precise answer: both are the same word. The word dake "only" is written as 丈 and derives from 丈 (take). The translation "only" is not always appropriate as is clear in this case. ...


6

All of them are syntactically correct, but they are semantically strange as explained below. Depending on the situation, もらう may not be polite enough. いただく will be even more polite. In the second one, 泊める is just about the night, so it is unnatural to mention 8日から9日まで, which means the whole two days (unless you are talking about both nights of 8日 and 9日, ...


6

The format: ◯◯を食べた ことが ありますか translates to: Have you ever eaten ◯◯?" You could also ask if they sometimes eat yorkshire pudding in a similar fashion: ◯◯を食べる ことが ありますか This translates roughly to: Do you eat ◯◯? The second question you mentioned: ヨークシャープディングを食べましたか? Is asking in the context of some time frame in the past. It ...


6

a very mild preference How about using どちらかと言えば、どちらかと言うと、[強]{し}いて言えば、強いて言うと etc. as in どちらでも大丈夫なんですが、どちらかと言うと、~~のほうがいいです。 どちらでも大丈夫なんですが、どちらかと言えば、~~のほうが[嬉]{うれ}しいです。/ありがたいです。 どちらでもいいんですが、[強]{し}いて言えば、~~のほうが・・・。


5

Although these sentences are nearly always translated as questions, the (admittedly informal and possibly colloquial) usage of っけ followed by か suggests that there is a difference at least on some level. In my experience, "questions" formed via the っけ particle are often rhetorical -- but just as often, they are interpreted as a request for information. ...


5

You may want to look here and here. Outside of polite language, か should be used with care. Generally, it has a very masculine and rough sounding atmosphere. Generally, in informal language, it only used when being very direct or sarcastic. Here's a good example taken from the second link: そんなのは、あるかよ!(Do you think (I) would have that kind of thing!?) ...


5

It is more polite if you omit or not using straight form when asking personal things. お しごと は  means お しごと は なんですか? And following is not correct あなた は しごと です か which means "Are you a work?"


5

の/ん often indicate that the speaker is attempting to explain or account for some fact. This can connect the question to a previous statement made by the addressee. For example: A: (Wow, some of the people who participated in the tournament were really good!) B: 誰が参加したんですか。 Here B would like to know which people inspired A to make that statement. ...


5

From John Hinds' Japanese: Descriptive Grammar, p.16: Nonpolite questions ending in の are frequently termed "feminine" or "childish" sounding, since women and children use this construction. There are, as far as I know, no statistics on this, so I must simply point out that males may also use this construction with impunity. [emphasis added] He gives ...


5

The main character of My Boss My Hero, Sasaki Makio, says はにゃ? as an expression when unsure or As said in Wikipedia 疑問に思ったりすることがあったりすると「はにゃ?」と言うのが口癖 When in doubt while thinking, he says his favorite phrase, 'hanya?' This is not a common Japanese word or saying and is unique to the character to help give him flavor.


5

Your teacher means 'Why did you know I like dogs?' わかる means different things depending on context. Here it translates 'to know' as opposed to 'understand'. As a language, Japanese is heavily tied to context. There are often different translations of the same word to English depending on the context.



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