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16

Other examples of intentionally altered readings to avoid confusion: 私立【しりつ】 (private) & 市立【しりつ】 (city-run) → 私立【わたくしりつ】 & 市立【いちりつ】 売春【ばいしゅん】 (selling sex) & 買春【ばいしゅん】 (buying sex) → 買春【かいしゅん】 波線【はせん】 (wavy line) & 破線【はせん】 (dashed line) → 波線【なみせん】 & 破線【やぶれせん】 市長【しちょう】 (city mayor) & 首長【しゅちょう】 (mayor in general) → 首長【くびちょう】 ...


13

The entry for 街【がい】 you linked to is: (尾) まちなみ. ▼繁華~ If you take a look at the explanation for the dictionary, we find what (尾) means:  (尾) 接尾語 Ie, it is used at the end of words, and not in isolation. Other dictionaries say がい【街】  (造) ... (造) means almost the same: used only to form words, but not in isolation. ...


11

I think the basic word is かがく, but the other reading is possible. Here's what 明鏡国語辞典 says at the bottom of its entry for 化学{かがく}: ►「科学」と区別して「ばけがく」ともいう。 If you pronounce it this way, you're deliberately using the other reading of the first kanji to make sure the person you're talking to knows which word you mean. I would definitely learn the reading ...


9

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


9

It's a question somehow unanswered for a fairly long time, while it doesn't seem to be too complicated to answer. If I am reading a Chinese text to a Japanese audience, how can I know which reading to use for each character? Of the 音読み, there can be 呉音, 漢音, and 唐音 to choose from. There are two major types of situation to read Classical Chinese text in ...


8

This is a community wiki post. cup コップ drinking cup カップ coffee cup, etc. iron アイロン clothes iron アイアン metal iron (Fe) machine ミシン sewing machine マシン machine in general micro ミクロ tiny マイクロ micro (SI prefix 10-6) pudding プディング pudding in general プリン custard pudding strike ストライキ strike (of workers) ストライク strike (of baseball) truck トラック ...


8

ソウル is the pronunciation given in the NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典, but both pronunciations are in use; some speakers pronounce it ソール instead. From The Sounds of Japanese (Vance 2008), pages 67-68: Katakana spellings of recent borrowings and foreign proper names with ウ (u) instead of ー (the length mark) do represent /ou/, but these are rare; Souru ソウル 'Seoul' in ...


7

I myself definitely would read it as 「プラス」 in that dictionary definition. In math, at least I was taught to read it as 「たす」 in first-grade and continued to do so until I entered junior high school where I was required to read it as 「プラス」. Since then, I have been reading it that way except when talking to kids below junior high age (11 or 12). I may or ...


7

Am I the only one who never says 「少女」? No, you are not. 「少女」 is a fairly big word despite its simple appearance. It is almost never used in informal oral communication among us native speakers, either. You would look pretty weird if you used it in informal speech. As "処女" and "少女" are both nouns, swapping them will not change the grammatical ...


7

Main Source: コトバンク https://kotobank.jp/word/%E7%87%BB%E3%82%8B-435662#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC.E4.B8.89.E7.89.88 The example sentences are my own. 「いぶる」 This would be the simplest of the three in the sense that it only has one meaning. It means "to smolder without burning properly". 「[暖炉]{だんろ}がいぶってしまって、うまく[燃]{も}えていない。」= "The fire ...


7

「三分」 can be read in three different ways -- pun, bun, and bu. "Three minutes": 「さんぷん」 "One third": 「さんぶんのいち」(三分の一) "Percentage": 「ぶ」 "My batting average is 230." = 「ボクの[打率]{だりつ}は[二割三分]{にわりさんぶ}です。」


6

Both are used, but the possible reading depends on the meaning. during this time period: このかん or このあいだ (I think both are OK) I have been sitting here for the last two hours. During this period, nobody came. 2時間前からここに座っている。この間【あいだ/かん】、ここには誰も来なかった。 the other day: このあいだ I went to a movie with my family the other day. この間【あいだ】、家族と映画に行きました。


6

It is most definitely an exception. The actual phonetic realisation of that series goes like this: は [ha] ひ [çi] ふ [ɸɯ~hɯ] へ [he] ほ [ho] In Middle Japanese they all were pronounced with [ɸ], which you can see in European transcriptions of names from the 1500s and 1600s - the Portuguese wrote e.g. <Faxecura> for a name that in Modern Japanese ...


6

As a general rule, yes loan words are pronounced just as they are written. I say general rule because I have noticed bilingual announcers on the radio who mix English and Japanese do sometimes insert the original pronunciation into their Japanese sentences. As far as your name is concerned, yes it would be normal to say it as you write it in katakana: ...


6

From The Sounds of Japanese (Vance 2008), p.85: We'll transcribe [dz] phonemically as /z/ because there's no contrast between [dz] and the voiced lamino-alveolar fricative [z]. Typically, though not consistently, [dz] occurs at the beginning of a word or in the middle of a word immediately following a syllable-final consonant (§5.1, §5.6), and [z] occurs ...


6

It was probably borrowed from English pronunciation: American English British English Letter pronunciation /ˌjuː ef ˈoʊ/ /ˌjuː ef ˈəʊ/ Word pronunciation /ˈjuːfoʊ/ /ˈjuːfəʊ/ On the top, we have the pronunciation in IPA of the three letters UFO, one after the other. Where does the bottom ...


6

When talking about shi (and absence of si), to say "there is no si but shi in Japanese" is not really correct. The truth would rather be "there is no distinction between si and shi in Japanese". In other words, there is only one such "voiceless sibilant" phoneme in Japanese, which is usually written as /s/, and さしすせそ are phonemically parsed as /sa si su se ...


6

「田中家」 is pronounced as 「たなかけ (Tanaka-ke)」. Usually, this word is used to refer to a family whose last names are 田中 or a house where a 田中 family live in. (ref. http://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/leaf/jn2/65854/m0u/) While 「田中家 (Tanaka-ke)」 sounds formally, 「田中ん家 (Tanaka-n-chi)」 sounds informally and seems to refer a family or a house of a speakers friend. A kanji ...


5

The main two factors in transcription from English to Japanese are (Japanese perception of) pronunciation in English spelling in English Transcribing au as オー is the norm (note the lengthening!): audio オーディオ auction オークション Australia オーストラリア Austria オーストリア audition オーディション automatic オートマ (abbr.) aura オーラ


5

I can answer for the examples given. We have to go back to their origin as Sino-Japanese terms, and in particular to their Chinese pronunciation. Now I can't actually go back to the Middle Chinese pronunciation the Japanese reading reflects, but Wiktionary may. In any case, if you take the final characters, you can see on the MDBG Chinese to English ...


5

This question has a useful answer by Boaz Yaniv which points out that you may simply be mishearing ひ as し, but it misses the fact that some speakers actually do pronounce these the same way! This merger is mentioned briefly in The Phonology of Japanese, Labrune 2012, p.69: For certain speakers, the opposition between /h/ and /s/ is neutralized before i: ...


5

I think 学際 is the only standard translation of interdisciplinary (at least according to the dictionary). Although it is easy to imagine what 超域 means, this word is unfamiliar to me at least as a name of an academic field. And apparently there are very few Japanese university departments with 超域 in their names. I feel there is no meaningful difference ...


5

繁栄 and 反映, 半影, ... are pronounced //haɴeː// without glottal stop and ん as //ɴ//. The combination //ɴ// + vowel is difficult to pronounce, so in some cases, such as 反応【はんのう】, orthography has been adapted to allow for easier pronunciation (although はんおう might still be considered a valid pronunciation). Usually though a word has only a single valid spelling, ...


5

It all depends the numbers immediately preceding 「分」. 「ふん Hun」: 2, 5, 7, 9 and 00. 「ぷん Pun」: 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, etc. Examples: 「ふん Hun」: 32分(さんじゅうにふん)、15分(じゅうごふん)、57分(ごじゅうななふん)、9分(きゅうふん)、4-5分(しごふん [Only number 5, not number 4, affects the way 分 is pronounced.]) 「ぷん Pun」: ...


5

Actually, what you mentioned are not old and new pronunciations. Both are contemporary ones. The "irohanihoheto..." is reading its letter names, while "irowa nioedo..." one, as a meaningful poem. The difference is much clearer if you try the same thing in English alphabet, say, "Cwm fjord bank glyphs vext quiz." (a perfect pangram from Wikipedia), where ...


5

I think you've mixed up two different things: voicing in compound words (連濁) deaspiration in non-initial position The first one is a grammar rather than pronunciation. In most cases, whether the voicing happens or not is determined by word, and the kana spelling always reflects the pronunciation change i.e. 雲 (くも) → 雨雲 (あまぐも), 雷雲 (かみなりぐも), 浮き雲 (うきぐも) ...


5

十年前 is じゅうねんまえ. The reading 前【さき】 is rather rare and not used much these days. Also, some newer dictionaries such as the 明鏡国語辞典 do not even list this reading. Just because a fancy kanji is used for a word does not necessarily imply any significant change in meaning. 言う, 云う, 曰う, 謂う, and 道う are all いう and mean pretty much almost the same, but 言う is a lot more ...


4

It's pronounced [[c̟ɕiʑimete]], although in careful speech it would probably be [[c̟ɕiɟʑimete]]―there's no contrast between [[ʑi]] and [[ɟʑi]] in Modern Japanese, so the word will be understood either way. For the pronunciation of ち and ぢ, see section 4.3 "Affricates" in Vance's The Sounds of Japanese (2008), starting on page 82. Most of this section is ...


4

Why not use the International Phonetic Alphabet? According to that they would be /kɑ/ for か and /kɛ/ or /ke/ for け.


4

W杯 is not meant to be pronounced. No one knows how to say this out loud "correctly". If conveying the meaning is important, I would read this as "ワールドカップ", maybe after one second of consideration. It's like saying "The First World War" for WWI. If what's literally written on the paper is important, I would say "ダブリュー・はい", knowing this is an unusual way to ...



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