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20

Each family would use its own method and all I know for certain is how mine handled the matter. We used on-reading words, meaning kanji compounds, which small kids generally are not familiar with. We also "created" our own on-reading words in cases where the generic words were already on-reading ones. Our final weapon was to say the words in English (we ...


16

Other examples of intentionally altered readings to avoid confusion: 私立【しりつ】 (private) & 市立【しりつ】 (city-run) → 私立【わたくしりつ】 & 市立【いちりつ】 売春【ばいしゅん】 (selling sex) & 買春【ばいしゅん】 (buying sex) → 買春【かいしゅん】 波線【はせん】 (wavy line) & 破線【はせん】 (dashed line) → 波線【なみせん】 & 破線【やぶれせん】 市長【しちょう】 (city mayor) & 首長【しゅちょう】 (mayor in general) → 首長【くびちょう】 ...


12

I'm fairly certain that this has to do with pitch in Japanese and accentuation in English. The natural pitch for デバグ【HLL】 is HLL, whereas デバッグ【LHLL】 would naturally be LHL (and バグ【HL】 is HL). To mimic accentuation by pitch (i.e. accented syllables get a high pitch after transliteration), the ッ is necessary to give the バ a (natural) high pitch. バグ already ...


11

I think the basic word is かがく, but the other reading is possible. Here's what 明鏡国語辞典 says at the bottom of its entry for 化学{かがく}: ►「科学」と区別して「ばけがく」ともいう。 If you pronounce it this way, you're deliberately using the other reading of the first kanji to make sure the person you're talking to knows which word you mean. I would definitely learn the reading ...


10

I don't know of any dictionary or reference book, but since 御 is most often written as お or ご, as appropriate, you could check the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言, http://www.kotonoha.gr.jp/shonagon) as the proper way of "doing Google counting". For 忙しい and 自分 the numbers are お忙しい 217 results ご忙しい 0 results お自分 8 ...


9

一組 is pronounced in two ways in Japanese for two different meanings. ひとくみ: a pair of ~~, a set of ~~ Examples: ひとくみのカップル、ひとくみのディナーウェアー いちくみ: Group #1 (among multiple groups) Example: Name of class in school (二年一組、六年一組, etc.) 一組 is never officially read いちぐみ, いっくみ or いっぐみ in real life. However, you will once in a while hear people say いっくみ to mean Group ...


9

This site has voice recordings of all the kana: http://www.saiga-jp.com/pronunciation_voice.html Trying to learn kana pronunciation from English is a bad idea.


8

In terms of etymology, みずうみ is indeed derived from two words, but it's now a single word—much like how English housewife is a single word, even though it's clearly derived from house + wife. This doesn't really matter for how you pronounce two /u/ vowels in a row, though. You just hold the sound for an extra beat ("mora"), like it's a long vowel: ...


8

Japanese 国語審議会 (National Language Council) recommends longer (with ー) forms since 1991. So foreign words in textbooks for elementary school students usually have trailing "ー". http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/nc/k19910628002/k19910628002.html 注3 英語の語末の‐er, ‐or, ‐arなどに当たるものは,原則としてア列の長音とし長音符号「ー」を用いて書き表す。ただし,慣用に応じて「ー」を省くことができる。 〔例〕 エレベーター ギター コンピューター ...


7

This is a community wiki post. cup コップ drinking cup カップ coffee cup, etc. iron アイロン clothes iron アイアン metal iron (Fe) machine ミシン sewing machine マシン machine in general micro ミクロ tiny マイクロ micro (SI prefix 10-6) pudding プディング pudding in general プリン custard pudding strike ストライキ strike (of workers) ストライク strike (of baseball) truck トラック ...


7

I myself definitely would read it as 「プラス」 in that dictionary definition. In math, at least I was taught to read it as 「たす」 in first-grade and continued to do so until I entered junior high school where I was required to read it as 「プラス」. Since then, I have been reading it that way except when talking to kids below junior high age (11 or 12). I may or ...


7

It's a matter of pitch accent. In a manner somewhat similar to Chinese, Japanese actually has 2 tones that establish its inflectional patterns. They aren't widely taught to foreigners because the patterns vary amongst regions (e.g. Osaka and Tokyo are near-opposite), but one purpose that they do serve is to distinguish between homophones. According to the ...


6

This is a really interesting question! According to wiki, 連声 is the term for Japanese sandhi (a blanket term for any phonological process that occurs across morpheme boundaries). I note this, because the examples in the question all exhibit nasal gemination (doubling of an "n"-sound), which is a (more commonly studied) subset of Japanese sandhi. To address ...


6

It was probably borrowed from English pronunciation: American English British English Letter pronunciation /ˌjuː ef ˈoʊ/ /ˌjuː ef ˈəʊ/ Word pronunciation /ˈjuːfoʊ/ /ˈjuːfəʊ/ On the top, we have the pronunciation in IPA of the three letters UFO, one after the other. Where does the bottom ...


6

Both are used, but the possible reading depends on the meaning. during this time period: このかん or このあいだ (I think both are OK) I have been sitting here for the last two hours. During this period, nobody came. 2時間前からここに座っている。この間【あいだ/かん】、ここには誰も来なかった。 the other day: このあいだ I went to a movie with my family the other day. この間【あいだ】、家族と映画に行きました。


6

It is most definitely an exception. The actual phonetic realisation of that series goes like this: は [ha] ひ [çi] ふ [ɸɯ~hɯ] へ [he] ほ [ho] In Middle Japanese they all were pronounced with [ɸ], which you can see in European transcriptions of names from the 1500s and 1600s - the Portuguese wrote e.g. <Faxecura> for a name that in Modern Japanese ...


6

The readings "kin" and "kon" are on-yomi pronunciations for 金. The "kon" reading is the older one (go-on 呉音) and "kin" is newer (kan-on 漢音). They ultimately stem from Middle Chinese /ki̯əm/; notice that 今 has the same on-yomi pronunciations. As a general pattern, go-on pronunciations are somewhat less common (relative to kan-on) in everyday words and more ...


6

@rintaun and I determined that this quote is from the finale of a drama called お天気お姉さん, around 8 minutes 26 seconds in. We both listened to it and heard the /g/, though I'd describe it as "swallowed", while rintaun described it as "slightly elided, but it's there". We both thought it sounded like the velar nasal allophone of /g/ which is pronounced [ŋ], ...


6

From The Sounds of Japanese (Vance 2008), p.85: We'll transcribe [dz] phonemically as /z/ because there's no contrast between [dz] and the voiced lamino-alveolar fricative [z]. Typically, though not consistently, [dz] occurs at the beginning of a word or in the middle of a word immediately following a syllable-final consonant (§5.1, §5.6), and [z] occurs ...


5

I think さかずき normally refers to something that looks like this: and can also be used as a general term for sake cup, including おちょこ: I think さかづき is probably an archaic way of spelling it in hiragana(or katakana?). Nowadays we normally spell it as さかずき. As for 杯 and 盃... both look okay to me, though I think I learned it as 杯 at school... some people say 盃 ...


5

As a general rule, yes loan words are pronounced just as they are written. I say general rule because I have noticed bilingual announcers on the radio who mix English and Japanese do sometimes insert the original pronunciation into their Japanese sentences. As far as your name is concerned, yes it would be normal to say it as you write it in katakana: ...


5

I can answer for the examples given. We have to go back to their origin as Sino-Japanese terms, and in particular to their Chinese pronunciation. Now I can't actually go back to the Middle Chinese pronunciation the Japanese reading reflects, but Wiktionary may. In any case, if you take the final characters, you can see on the MDBG Chinese to English ...


5

The main two factors in transcription from English to Japanese are (Japanese perception of) pronunciation in English spelling in English Transcribing au as オー is the norm (note the lengthening!): audio オーディオ auction オークション Australia オーストラリア Austria オーストリア audition オーディション automatic オートマ (abbr.) aura オーラ


4

ん has different pronunciations(allophones) depending on surrounding context. [m] before /p/, /b/ and /m/ [n] before /d/, /t/, and /n/ [ŋ] (What some might know as "ng") before [k] and [ɡ]. [ɴ] at the end of prosodic units. This is close to [ŋ] but pronounced further down in the throat. Before vowels, /j/,/w/,/r/,/s/,/z/ and /h/, it is pronounced as a ...


4

Why not use the International Phonetic Alphabet? According to that they would be /kɑ/ for か and /kɛ/ or /ke/ for け.


4

W杯 is not meant to be pronounced. No one knows how to say this out loud "correctly". If conveying the meaning is important, I would read this as "ワールドカップ", maybe after one second of consideration. It's like saying "The First World War" for WWI. If what's literally written on the paper is important, I would say "ダブリュー・はい", knowing this is an unusual way to ...


4

It's pronounced [[c̟ɕiʑimete]], although in careful speech it would probably be [[c̟ɕiɟʑimete]]―there's no contrast between [[ʑi]] and [[ɟʑi]] in Modern Japanese, so the word will be understood either way. For the pronunciation of ち and ぢ, see section 4.3 "Affricates" in Vance's The Sounds of Japanese (2008), starting on page 82. Most of this section is ...


4

The changes you're talking about are actually pretty regular. There are some irregular ones (一人【ひとり】、二人【ふたり】、三階【さんがい】), but what you're looking for is pretty straight-forward. Wikipedia has a pretty good summary of the sound changes.


4

「22攻撃ポイント」 is how I would phrase it, and if it means anything, I am a native speaker. It looks awkward to use a particle like 「の」 in a short phrase like this, and "20 2" is just not a possibility.


4

The difference is audible as Japanese pronunciation has a rhythm based on morae: Every simple kana あ, ぬ, や, etc., is one mora long. (This includes ん!) The contractions りゃ, ぴょ, etc. are one mora long. The long vowel mark (長音符) ー (e.g. in アート) is one mora long. The small つ (っ) counts one mora. So こんにちは is five morae long and should be pronounced that way, ...



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