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19

Each family would use its own method and all I know for certain is how mine handled the matter. We used on-reading words, meaning kanji compounds, which small kids generally are not familiar with. We also "created" our own on-reading words in cases where the generic words were already on-reading ones. Our final weapon was to say the words in English (we ...


12

I'm fairly certain that this has to do with pitch in Japanese and accentuation in English. The natural pitch for デバグ【HLL】 is HLL, whereas デバッグ【LHLL】 would naturally be LHL (and バグ【HL】 is HL). To mimic accentuation by pitch (i.e. accented syllables get a high pitch after transliteration), the ッ is necessary to give the バ a (natural) high pitch. バグ already ...


10

The sound called /r/ in Japanese is not quite the same sound as the L or R sounds of English. And as you've correctly observed, there's more than one way to pronounce /r/ in Japanese. There are a couple technical terms from linguistics that might help: /r/ is considered a phoneme. That means it's considered a single sound, even if it's technically ...


10

Apparently ば is Yoshimoto Banana's signature on Twitter (ば is for ばなな). A couple of other examples of her tweets: ψ(`∇´)ψ ば ですね^ ^ ば Sometimes members of her staff will write tweets using her account and sign them スタッフ so you can tell that Yoshimoto Banana herself didn't write them. EDIT: I wrote this up quickly last night, but I have this ...


9

一組 is pronounced in two ways in Japanese for two different meanings. ひとくみ: a pair of ~~, a set of ~~ Examples: ひとくみのカップル、ひとくみのディナーウェアー いちくみ: Group #1 (among multiple groups) Example: Name of class in school (二年一組、六年一組, etc.) 一組 is never officially read いちぐみ, いっくみ or いっぐみ in real life. However, you will once in a while hear people say いっくみ to mean Group ...


8

Not perfect but you could point out that in "see" the S sound is very similar to the S sound in さ [sa] but different from the S sound in しゃ [sha] or し [shi], and that the EE sound is very similar to the Japanese い [i]. That's how I have introduced it to students in the past. They almost certainly would have never noticed that the beginning S sound of し [shi] ...


8

In terms of etymology, みずうみ is indeed derived from two words, but it's now a single word—much like how English housewife is a single word, even though it's clearly derived from house + wife. This doesn't really matter for how you pronounce two /u/ vowels in a row, though. You just hold the sound for an extra beat ("mora"), like it's a long vowel: ...


8

It's a matter of pitch accent. In a manner somewhat similar to Chinese, Japanese actually has 2 tones that establish its inflectional patterns. They aren't widely taught to foreigners because the patterns vary amongst regions (e.g. Osaka and Tokyo are near-opposite), but one purpose that they do serve is to distinguish between homophones. According to the ...


7

There may be rules in modern Japanese regulating this, perhaps observed by TV announcers. However, practically, I believe it is more natural to produce the sound きゅ than a forced き-う. The same goes for 霧生. In fact, 霧生 is spelled with きりゅう in many cases. Some people might prefer to split イ+ウ if they are separate morphemes... but practically, they are just so ...


7

We sometimes write 「な!?」,「なっ!?」or「なっ・・・!?」(These three will be pronounced the same way) to mean 「なにっ!?」or「何!?」. Probably it's like "Wha...!?" or "What the...!?". We also sometimes write 「え゛っ!」in place of「えっ!」 to add emphasis, but the 「゛」([濁点]{だくてん}) won't change/affect the pronunciation, so it'd be impossible to pronounce 「な゛」or「え゛」 correctly (I don't know ...


7

The readings "kin" and "kon" are on-yomi pronunciations for 金. The "kon" reading is the older one (go-on 呉音) and "kin" is newer (kan-on 漢音). They ultimately stem from Middle Chinese /ki̯əm/; notice that 今 has the same on-yomi pronunciations. As a general pattern, go-on pronunciations are somewhat less common (relative to kan-on) in everyday words and more ...


6

Here's the English equivalents for the IPA: [ɡ] = the 'g' in 'get' [ŋ] = the 'ng' in 'sing' The main difference is that [ŋ] is a nasal consonant, whereas [ɡ] is not. If you try plugging your nose and pronouncing [ŋ], you'll realize that it's not possible. That's because air must flow through the nasal passage, but not the oral passage, for [ŋ]. The ...


6

From my experience, it's no different than リー as you mentioned. My name has a シ in it, although it has been incorrectly guessed to be an elongated sound by people who don't know me that well. As such, there have been occasions when my former Japanese teacher (older woman) and 事務員's have written it as both シー and シィ.


6

This is a really interesting question! According to wiki, 連声 is the term for Japanese sandhi (a blanket term for any phonological process that occurs across morpheme boundaries). I note this, because the examples in the question all exhibit nasal gemination (doubling of an "n"-sound), which is a (more commonly studied) subset of Japanese sandhi. To address ...


6

@rintaun and I determined that this quote is from the finale of a drama called お天気お姉さん, around 8 minutes 26 seconds in. We both listened to it and heard the /g/, though I'd describe it as "swallowed", while rintaun described it as "slightly elided, but it's there". We both thought it sounded like the velar nasal allophone of /g/ which is pronounced [ŋ], ...


5

I think you're asking this because in English, we distinguish times from by: 3×3=9         three times three is nine a 3×3 block      a three-by-three block But I think in Japanese, it's just かける in both cases: 3×3=9     さんかけるさんはきゅう 3×3のブロック  さんかけるさんのブロック You can see that both uses are listed on Wikipedia's article for × in the same section (titled ...


5

Intervocalic ん is usually pronounced as a nasalized version of the preceding vowel, so in this case [ã]. This would lead to a pronunciation of ワンマン運転を (I'm adding the を from the clip, since otherwise I wouldn't be able to determine the pronunciation of the last ん in 運転) sounding something like [wa.m.ma.ã.u.n.te.ẽ.o] (dots between morae, tilde over a ...


4

For equivalent English sounds, you can find the Japanese じょ sound in certain names and words: Joe Joad joke You can also find the Japanese よ sound in certain words: yo-yo yo (slang) Here is an example of a phrase in Japanese that uses longer forms for each of the sounds じょ and よ on this website: JOUYOU KANJI On that page is an audio recording of ...


4

As a general rule... You will you ON readings for numbers most of the time when using specific counters. As @summea mentioned, there are numerous times when certain numbers have alternate pronunciations. You will use the KUN readings when specifically using the "generic" counter (一つ, 二つ, 三つ, ...). Then there is a third group of counters that use KUN for ...


4

Pronounce them separately in general. The examples you cite have /i.u/ occuring across a "word" boundary, and the sound change that converted /iu/ to /juː/ did not operate across "word" boundaries. Put it another way, 言う is pronounced as if it were spelled ゆう, but only because its spelling is irregular! All other examples (e.g. 友人、有限、優秀) are now spelled as ...


4

The explanation in my dictionary is: 「いく」の語形も上代からみられ、平安時代以降は「ゆく」と併用される。「ゆく」「いく」はほとんど意味は同じであるが、古くは「ゆく」のほうがより広く使われ、特に訓点資料•和歌(「生く」との掛け詞の場合を除き)では、ほとんどすべてが「ゆく」である。現在では「ゆく」に比べて「いく」のほうが話し言葉的な感じをもち、したがって、「過ぎ行く」「散り行く」など、文章語的な語の場合には「ゆく」となるのが普通である。なお、「ゆきて」のイ音便形「ゆいて」も用いられたが、現在は一般的でなく、促音便形は「ゆく」のほうは用いられず、「いく」を用いて「いって」「いった」となる。 My translation / synopsis is as follows: ...


4

According to Wikipedia, there are three pronunciations of pH: An older pronunciation from German, ペーハー. A newer pronunciation from English, ピーエイチ. A variant on the latter, ピーエッチ. It seems like these are all still in use, but the long-term trend is toward the English-derived reading. According to Wikipedia, ピーエイチ was decided upon as a standard reading by ...


4

The changes you're talking about are actually pretty regular. There are some irregular ones (一人【ひとり】、二人【ふたり】、三階【さんがい】), but what you're looking for is pretty straight-forward. Wikipedia has a pretty good summary of the sound changes.


4

The difference is audible as Japanese pronunciation has a rhythm based on morae: Every simple kana あ, ぬ, や, etc., is one mora long. (This includes ん!) The contractions りゃ, ぴょ, etc. are one mora long. The long vowel mark (長音符) ー (e.g. in アート) is one mora long. The small つ (っ) counts one mora. So こんにちは is five morae long and should be pronounced that way, ...


4

Neither, really. Merging し and ひ happens in certain dialects, and your teacher probably studied somewhere where that merger is common. You can choose to do it this way, or you can choose to not. (It has nothing to do with the individual word ひと, though. Some people might merge し and ひ in some places and not others, and before a /t/ might be one of those ...


3

You won't find this in a standard dictionary. What you need is a "dictionary" of Japanese emoticons, for example: http://www.japaneseemoticons.net/all-japanese-emoticons/ It seems (^з^)-☆ is an air kiss. As for ば (reads "ba"), this is probably the sound for "smooch".


3

The 中黒 is used as punctuation and is only part of written language (文語体) and does not represent anything in spoken language (口語体). (You will find no 中黒 in bedtime stories.) When reading to yourself, or to someone reading the text next to you, the 中黒 would simply be ignored, with possibly a short pause between the words. If you are reading, say, a dictionary ...


3

According to the entry about は in デジタル大辞泉: 「は」は、平安時代半ば以後、語中・語尾では、一般に[wa]と発音されるようになった。これらは、歴史的仮名遣いでは「は」と書くが、現代仮名遣いでは、助詞「は」以外はすべて「わ」と書く。 Which is probably the source of confusion. If one thinks of it as a "word" then they might be inclined to read it as te-ni-o-wa. However, according to the entry about てにをは in デジタル大辞泉: ...



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